Non-reduplicated non-loan 4-letter Roots in Arabic/Semitic

Raigerzero

New Member
English, Algerian Arabic
[I hope this is an appropriate topic to ask here]

Does Arabic have non-reduplicated Semitic quadriliteral roots that have always been quadriliteral? What I mean is, ignoring words like كوكب kawkab which seems to have historically been a reduplicated k-b-k-b root and ignoring words like ترجمة tarjama(t) which probably was a loanword from another Semitic language (itself a derivation of the r-g-m root with a "t-" prefix), what roots/word, if any, are quadriliteral derived from proto-Semitic or are native developments of a native, PS-derived triliteral root into a quadriliteral root? I personally am more interested in the former rather than the latter, but either are good.

Furthurmore, if there are some, is there anything particularly noteworthy about their development, given that most PS words were either triliteral or biliteral?

I notice ثعلب tha3lab "fox" might be an example (with the -b maybe being an animal suffix added on to a theoretical th-3-l root --> I see that ثعالة thu3āla(t) is a word in the dictionary, so I am not sure which word is older).

This doesn't need to be limited to Arabic (although that's more of my focus), you can discuss other words in other Semitic language that are
non-reduplicated non-loan quadriliteral.
 
  • fdb

    Senior Member
    French (France)
    I think ϑaʻlab ‘fox’ and ʻaqrab ‘scorpion’ are good examples of what you are looking for. The -b is presumably a suffix for animal names in pre-Semitic, but at a Semitic level it is part of the root. Also Aramaic qarqafṯā ‘skull’ (root q-r-q-p).
     
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    Ghabi

    Senior Member
    Cantonese
    For what it's worth, there are verbs like برهن "prove", عرقل "hamper", هملج "amble", دحرج "roll", جمهر "assemble", اشرأبّ "crane one's neck", اضمحلّ "vanish" etc.
     

    bazq

    Senior Member
    Hebrew
    I think ϑaʻlab ‘fox’ and ʻaqrab ‘scorpion’ are good examples of what you are looking for. The -b is presumably a suffix for animal names in pre-Semitic, but at a Semitic level it is part of the root. Also Aramaic qarqafṯā ‘skull’ (root q-r-q-p).

    How interesting... didn't know about that "-b". In Hebrew it's שועל (shu'3al) without it, so I guess Hebrew dropped it.
    Anyway, 3-k-b-r gives "mouse" in Hebrew, and 3-k-b-sh gives "spider" (though I think their etymology is dubious).
     

    Lugubert

    Senior Member
    I think ϑaʻlab ‘fox’ and ʻaqrab ‘scorpion’ are good examples of what you are looking for. The -b is presumably a suffix for animal names in pre-Semitic, but at a Semitic level it is part of the root. Also Aramaic qarqafṯā ‘skull’ (root q-r-q-p).

    -b suits wild animals, like dubb 'bear' and di'b 'wolf' and more, but you could also argue that -l/-r fits domesticated animals: Himaar 'donkey', baqar 'kine', thawr 'bull', raxil 'ewe'. Interestingly, this would mean that the dog (kalb) was domesticated late, but the pig (xanziir) early.
     

    fdb

    Senior Member
    French (France)
    The current thinking among archaeologists is that the dog (kal-b) was domesticated at least 15000 years ago, the camel (gama-l) not until about 5000 years ago.
     

    tFighterPilot

    Senior Member
    Israel - Hebrew
    There's the Hebrew root h-r-h-r which means "passing thought". It apparently comes from Aramaic, attested in the book of Daniel (which is in Aramaic). "חֵלֶם חֲזֵית וִידַחֲלִנַּנִי וְהַרְהֹרִין עַל מִשְׁכְּבִי וְחֶזְוֵי רֵאשִׁי יְבַהֲלֻנַּנִי." Daniel 4-2
     

    amikama

    a mi modo
    עברית
    There's the Hebrew root h-r-h-r which means "passing thought". It apparently comes from Aramaic, attested in the book of Daniel (which is in Aramaic). "חֵלֶם חֲזֵית וִידַחֲלִנַּנִי וְהַרְהֹרִין עַל מִשְׁכְּבִי וְחֶזְוֵי רֵאשִׁי יְבַהֲלֻנַּנִי." Daniel 4-2
    But this is reduplication. OP asked for "non-reduplicated Semitic quadriliteral roots".
     

    bazq

    Senior Member
    Hebrew
    Well, excluding animal names with -b or -l/r (7-r-g-l , '-r-n-b = cricket , rabbit) there's 3--l-p = bat. Perhaps the l entered the base as a result of methesis? (in which case the root is 3--p)

    I managed to find k-r-b-l which means "to wrap", it appears in 1 Chronicles 15 27.

    What about the semitic s-m-'-l for "left"?
     

    rougeaux

    New Member
    french
    There are approximately 4000 quadriliteral roots in Arabic. A limited part of them are loans.
    Although I don’t know how much are PS roots I guess there are a lot.
     
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