obedience enforced by

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SuprunP

Senior Member
Ukrainian & Russian
What the crowd experiences is clearest in the most concentrated case of this kind: when it is a single individual such as a king that the revolt is directed against. Here the ultimate source of all commands has been the king, his officials and nobles being agents for the transmission and execution of his orders. The individuals who form the rebellious crowd have for long years been kept at a distance by threats and their obedience enforced by sanctions.
(Crowds and Power; E. Canetti)

Would you be so kind as to tell me whether it is possible to read it in either of the two following ways:

1) The individuals who form the rebellious crowd have for long years been kept at a distance by threats and their obedience [has for long years been] enforced by sanctions.

2) The individuals who form the rebellious crowd have for long years been kept at a distance by threats and [by] their obedience [which has been] enforced by sanctions.

Thanks.
 
  • Copyright

    Senior Member
    American English
    I read it this way: The individuals who form the rebellious crowd have for long years 1) been kept at a distance by threats and 2) their obedience [has been] enforced by sanctions.
     
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