Ok, so Persians dropped ardata in favour of asēm~asēmēn at the Byzantine Greek period rather than the much earlier contact with the Greeks?The idea about the Greek origin of the Middle>New>modern Persian word does exist among Iranists. In Zoroastrian Pahlavi this word is asēm~asēmēn.
Do these words (سال, also گل, دل) have, in some measure, the original meaning of PIE *arg- in them, otherwise why are they relevant? Maybe in layman's terms please.
These are just parallel examples of the Old Persian rd sequence developing into New Persian l. I am too lazy to look up the exact attested and reconstructed forms right now, but they would be roughly something like θard-, dṛd- and wṛd- in Old Persian. Compare the first two with Sanskrit śarad- and hṛd-; the last with the loanword in Arabic: ward-.
The passage to which this translation belongs is in lines 40-41: rdatam \ utâ \ asâ \ dâruv \ hacâ \ Mudrâyâ \ abariya \
The term asimon exists in Hebrew no later than the 2nd century (appears several times in the Mishnah) so could be borrowed by Persian too before the Byzantine era. Denotes the meaning as described above: "unsigned", a piece of metal similar to coin but with no specified value.I think the middle/modern Persian word is a borrowing from Byzantine Greek. In Byzantine Greek, colloquially, silver was «ἀσήμιν» asḗmin, Late ByzGr asímin, diminutive of the neuter noun «ἄσημον» ásēmon (Late ByzGr ásimon) --> newly-cut unimpressed/unmarked silver coin = privative prefix «ἀ-» a- + neuter noun «σῆμα» sêmă --> sign, symbol, trait, omen, mark, character, feature, gravestone.
In MoGr colloquially, silver is ασήμι [aˈsi.mi] (neut.).