When Ottoman Turkish was written in the Arabic script, how were Turkish vowels represented, in particular the short vowels? Did the Ottomans use the diacritics zabar zer pesh (fatha kasra damma) that were used in Arabic texts like the Quran to represent short vowels?
Not that I know of. Plus, Turkish doesn't have long vowels. Every vowel is short. And all the Arabic/Persian words were spelt the way they are spelt in those languages (except for the ta-marbuta (ة), which was either spelt as a T (ت) or a H (ه)).
Arabic words were easy to read if you knew the words. Turkish words were more of a guess-work. I guess context helped.