Perfective Consonants

Discussion in 'Ελληνικά (Greek)' started by omnilingua98, Jun 17, 2014.

  1. omnilingua98 Member

    Turkish - Turkey
    Καλήσπερα! I already know we change some consonants of the verbs to make it prefective. Like:
    αγοράζω > αγόρασα
    However, my grammar book doesnt mention anything about the consonants below:
    Δ Λ Μ Ρ Τ
    It says, for example ζ > σ, κ > ξ or φ > Ψ. But what I want to know is what happens to those letters(σ, ξ, Ψ) themselves as well.
    Thank you. (Sorry for not examplifying the letters, my verb vocabulary is very poor.)
  2. Rallino Moderatoúrkos

    Καλησπέρα :)

    Since no one has answered your question, I thought I might try.

    Apart from those consonant changes that your book gives you, the verbs that end in other consonants usually take the ending: -ησα.

    τραγουδώ --> τραγούδησα
    μιλώ --> μίλησα
    επιτήρω --> επιτήρησα
    ταχυδρομώ --> ταχυδρόμησα

    The only -τω verb I can think of is θέτω, which becomes έθεσα.

    There are, however, some -ττω verbs, which become ξ with the addition of an initial ε whenever the outcome has fewer than three syllables:
    πράττω --> έπραξα
    εισπράττω --> εισέπραξα (this one comes from πράττω)
    κηρύττω --> κήρυξα
    πλήττω --> έπληξα

    In -σω, there is, for instance, the verb αρέσω which doesn't change its consonant: άρεσα.
    There are however some verbs in -σσω, like ανταλάσσω, and it becomes αντάλαξα. Verbs in -σω are pretty rare. And I'm not even sure if there are any with ξ and ψ at all. They're rather reserved for other tenses.

    That said, we'd better wait until a native speaker butts in. :)
  3. sotos Senior Member

    Α κ becomes ξ (=ks) or a φ becomes ψ (=ps) because the last consonant of the root (k, f, p) is combined with the σ of the suffix for past tense. eg. γράφ-ω > έ-γραφ-σα > έγραψα.
    I cannot think of any verbs ending in ξω or ψω in the present tense. If there are any, these consonants are expected to remain the same in past t., unless the v. is irregular.
  4. omnilingua98 Member

    Turkish - Turkey
    Ευχαριστώ πολύ! It was like 3-4 days that I have waited an answer. Now, in my mind, everything seems to be more settled. :)
  5. Perseas Senior Member

    Present --> Aorist

    σφάλλω --> έσφαλα
    απονέμω --> απένειμα
    προσφέρω --> πρόσφερα
    κρίνω --> έκρινα
    θέτω --> έθεσα
    πράττω --> έπραξα

    αρέσω --> άρεσα
    απαλλάσσω --> απάλλαξα (as πράττω --> έπραξα)
    There is no characteristic ξ, ψ in present.

    All the verbs above belong to the 1st conjucation, i.e. they end in unstressed -ω (e.g. δένω).
    The 2nd conjugation verbs end in stressed -ώ (e.g αγαπώ). These verbs form their aorist in -ησα: αγαπώ --> αγάπησα, κυβερνώ --> κυβέρνησα. (You can see some in Rallino's post as well).

    Of course that is not all about the formation of the aorist. There are also many exemptions.
    Last edited: Jun 19, 2014
  6. omnilingua98 Member

    Turkish - Turkey
    Thank you.

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