Persian: اعقاب

Discussion in 'Indo-Iranian Languages' started by seitt, Feb 8, 2013.

  1. seitt Senior Member


    My Āryānpur has the following definition of “شیعه”:
    هر یک از مذهب‌هایی که حضرت علی و اعقاب او جانشین پیامبر اسلام (ص) می‌شناسند​

    Is this the best Persian definition of “شیعه”, please?

    Furthermore, what does اعقاب mean? It's an Arabic plural, isn’t it? So what is its singular? Please give the pronunciation too.

    Best wishes, and many thanks,

  2. aisha93

    aisha93 Senior Member

    Yes it is an Arabic plural and means "offspring, posterity, children".
    The singular is عَقِب and is pronounced as (3aqeb).

    And this is from Dehkhoda:
    اعقاب . [ اَ ] (ع اِ) پس ماندگان و پس آیندگان و پسران و اولاد. ج ِ عقب .
  3. seitt Senior Member

    Many thanks. Is this singular عَقِب actually used in Persian? I can't find it in my dictionaries.
  4. aisha93

    aisha93 Senior Member

    Yes, and it has some other meanings too.
    In colloquial Persian it means "back, behind", but I'll let native speakers to elaborate.

    It can also mean "after".
  5. Treaty Senior Member

    It is correct. It sometimes have negative meaning (in context of a progress: left behind, retarded, retreat, ...). Or sometimes positive (like support). Or neutral, just as a adverb or adjective referring to a position (back, rear, behind, following, ...). It heavily depends on the context and accompanied words.

    In official and central Iran's Persian عقب is rarely used as single form of اعقاب. But I have no idea about other regions.

    Besides, there is also عقبه that has the opposite meaning: precedent, ancestor or background. In informal pronunciation they may slightly look like each other.
  6. seitt Senior Member

    Many thanks - so which word do Iranians use in this meaning, please? I.e. in the meaning of "a descendant of Ali", the singular of the plural اعقاب in this sentence: "هر یک از مذهب هایی که حضرت علی و اعقاب او جانشین پیامبر اسلام (ص) می شناسند".

    How, for example, can I say, "Emam Reza was a descendant of Emam Ali"?
  7. Treaty Senior Member

    There are three useful word for your case: نواده، سلاله and از نسل.
    سلاله /sʊlɑle(h)/ is mostly used for religious figures (especially the prophet). Based on its Arabic meaning, I guess it also suggests a sense of succession:
    امام رضا سلاله امام علی است
    نواده /nævɑde(h)/ (plural نوادگان) originally meant grandchild. But today it is used for all descendant.
    امام رضا نواده امام علی است
    You can also use the expression از نسل (of generation of). It is very common.
    امام رضا از نسل امام علی است

    I used present tense است since it is not a time-dependant relationship (however, it depends on the tense of the context).
    Another issue is the sentence structure. If you insist in using "a" before "descendant", formal Persian does not have this structure. You need to use the plural form:
    امام رضا (یکی) از اعقاب/سلاله های/نوادگان امام علی است/بود
  8. seitt Senior Member

    Thank you so much - that cleared up a long-standing difficulty of mine over the translation of "a".
  9. searcher123

    searcher123 Senior Member

    My home ;-) /The Persian Gulf
    Just an addition to Treaty complete answer: سلاله (Solaaleh) is much more common for Imams.
  10. seitt Senior Member

    Many thanks, much obliged.

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