Persian: وایستا

sehrehalal

Member
English - US
Salaam,

I am wondering if anyone can help with the grammatical analysis of the colloquial form of the command وایستا (stop), specifically where does the ا / alef come from.

I thought it might be related to forms like گفتم / گفتا in classical poetry or exclamations like وای مصیبتا but that doesn't seem to make much sense. Maybe it is related to cases where we say ها / ا as an extra emphasis in colloquial - ازش نپرسا ('don't ask him' - completely non-standard spelling of course)?

Looking for any linguists' perspectives or published papers rather than speculation if possible.... با تشکر
 
  • PersoLatin

    Senior Member
    UK
    Persian - Iran
    Looking for any linguists' perspectives or published papers rather than speculation if possible.... با تشکر
    I have asked questions before and expected the same as you but sometimes, or often, there is no linguists' perspectives or published papers, so some of my questions have remained unanswered and for وایستا which is colloquial, it could be even harder to find an scholarly answer. But let's stay positive.

    In the mean time let me give my explanation based on Persian verb formation, but before that let's look at other variations of وایستا/vâystâ (also very common without /t/, وایسا/vâysâ)

    imperative: وایستا/vâystâ meaning stop/stay/stand, examples: وایستا اونجا (vâystâ unjâ) - stop/stand/stay there!
    Past Tense: وایستا دم/vâystâdam 'I stopped'
    Past Participle: وایستا ده/vâystâdé - وایستا ده اونجا/vâystâdé unjâ - she is standing there/she is stood there
    Infinitive : وایستا دن/vâystâdan, to stop/stay/stand

    Based on the rules, infinitives are formed this way: past stem + ن/an, the past stem: present stem + d/id/ud/âd/t. Present stem is used as the basis for conjugation of present tense forms, plus the imperative.

    We need to bear in mind وایستا دن is colloquial and is not regular, now applying the rule to وایستا دن we get وایستاد as the past stem and وایستا as the present stem and here is your answer.


    I believe the original form of this verb was باز ایستادن, and applying the same rule will yield the present stem as بازایست or بایست without the final ا / alef.
     
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    sehrehalal

    Member
    English - US
    Thanks so much for this detailed reply! I understand that sometimes there just really aren't any published papers / reputable sources discussing particular issues. It seems there is so much work left to be done in Persian linguistics!
     

    Derakhshan

    Senior Member
    Arabic, Persian
    I initially thought it was from bâz as well, I'm not so sure anymore.

    Here is the present conjugation to complete the picture:

    vây-miste "S/he stands/will stand"
    subjunctive: vây-ste

    And in some dialects:

    "He is standing", "Stand!"

    Bushehri: veyside, veysak!

    Lari: vaysade, oveys!

    Sorani Kurdish: westâwe, biweste!

    Now if this comes from the preverb bâz-, I wonder what purpose it even serves, or why it is present in all spoken dialects while the bare verb istâdan isn't used at all, and why the present Persian form is vây-miste instead of vâ(z)-miste?

    Also, in all the dialects/languages I mentioned besides Tehrani, the present stem is veys(t)/vast, with a short vowel, I wonder if this makes a bâz origin unlikely, since in Lari we have many verbs beginning in -, like vâgard! = برگرد , this is clearly from bâz, but oveys doesn't fit the pattern.

    Maybe it is from some other preverb, or just another form/development of the bare verb istâdan (which got reanalyzed in Tehrani as a preverb).
     
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    PersoLatin

    Senior Member
    UK
    Persian - Iran
    Now if this comes from the preverb bâz-, I wonder what purpose it even serves, or why it is present in all spoken dialects while the bare verb istâdan isn't used at all, and why the present Persian form is vây-miste instead of vâ(z)-miste?
    We have ‏بازایستا دن and ‏ایستادن and they are different, the difference is بازایستا دن is used for situations when one is moving/walking and means 'to stop', whereas ‏ایستادن is in a stationary state and means 'to stand up', of course these days بایست and وایستا mean the same thing, to me, to tell someone to stop, when they are running/walking/talking, should be "!بازایست", whereas بایست can only mean 'stand up' from a sitting/lying position.
     
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