Persian: چالان / chaalaan

Derakhshan

Senior Member
Arabic, Persian
I recently found out this word is used in Dari Persian, instead of روشن

چالان کردن = روشن کردن = to turn on

It's also used in Hindustani as 'chaalu', seemingly a corruption of چالان, as in
'AC chaalu hai' = the AC is on

The word in this form is even used in southern Persian dialects, as چالو کردن

Can anyone shed light on its etymology?
 
  • desi4life

    Senior Member
    English
    It's a loanword from Hindi, Urdu or another Indo-Aryan language. chaaluu is not a corruption of chaalaan. Both are connected to the noun chaal and verbs such as chalnaa and chalaanaa.

    چالو चालू ćālū [cf. H. ćalnā, ćāl], adj. 1. current, in force; continuing, in progress (as a show, a term). 2. in working order, active; on, available (a service). 3. frequented, busy (a street). 4. pej. cunning.

    In Dari, it appears the noun chaalaan (below) adopted the meaning of chaaluu or the verb chalaanaa was reanalyzed as an adjective chaalaan.

    چالان चालान ćālān s.m. An invoice or way-bill, bill of lading; a list (of letters, &c. sent); a certificate of despatch; a remittance; a memorandum of money received and invested; a pass, a passport; clearance (of a ship); sending up or forwarding (a case, or a prisoner, &c. to a magistrate, &c.); transportation

    EDIT: roshan is also used in Hindi, Urdu and other Indo-Aryan languages (borrowed from Persian), but the meaning is a bit different.

    روشن रोशन roshan adj. Light, lighted up, alight, illuminated; bright, shining, splendid, luminous; clear, evident, manifest, conspicuous
     
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    Derakhshan

    Senior Member
    Arabic, Persian
    Thanks. I assumed it was a Persian loanword to Indo-Aryan since the opposite is rarer.

    Even Dehkhoda has this meaning for چالان (bill, invoice; transportation):
    معنی چالان | لغت‌نامه دهخدا

    I wonder how, then, the form چالان (bill, invoice; transportation) came to be used in Dari with the meaning of چالو (on, working).
     

    desi4life

    Senior Member
    English
    Thanks. I assumed it was a Persian loanword to Indo-Aryan since the opposite is rarer.

    Even Dehkhoda has this meaning for چالان (bill, invoice; transportation):
    معنی چالان | لغت‌نامه دهخدا

    I wonder how, then, the form چالان (bill, invoice; transportation) came to be used in Dari with the meaning of چالو (on, working).

    It's likely due to the resemblance of chaalaan to the verb chalaanaa ("to turn on" is one of the meanings). @fdb can probably clarify if the "bill/invoice" meaning is native Persian or if that is also a loanword from Indo-Aryan.
     
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    marrish

    Senior Member
    اُردو Urdu
    Shamsul Rahman Faruqi, in لغات روزمرّہ (Urdu), writes it is an Urdu word, made from [the verb] chalnaa/chalaanaa. Its meaning is that of a paper, bearing a list of some commodity/goods which are sent to someone (i.e. goods are being moved چلایا ), thence a meaning has been developed of a paper with a specification of something, a sum of money for instance, so that the paper on which the amount of money deposited to the government treasury was written, also used to be referred to as a 'chaalaan'. The first mentioned meaning was extended onto a document submitted to a court, on which there was a list of the accused due to be produced before it. This word, used in Indian English, is not there in standard English.
    چالان– چالان اردو کا لفظ ہے۔ یہ "چلنا/چلانا" سے بنایا گیا ہے۔ اس کے معنی وہ کاغذ ہیں جس پر کسی سامان یا سامانوں کی فہرست درج کر کے وہ سامان کسی کے پاس بھیجا جائے (یعنی سامان کو چلایا جائے)۔ اس سے پھر یہ معنی بنائے گئے کہ وہ کاغذ جس میں کسی چیز، مثلاً کسی رقم کی کیفیت درج ہو۔ لہٰذا سرکاری خزانے میں جمع ہونے والی رقم جس کاغذ پر درج کی جاتی تھی اسے بھی "چالان" کہا جاتا تھا۔ اول الذکر معنی سے یہ معنی نکلے کہ وہ کاغذ جس پر ملزموں کی فہرست درج کر کے عدالت میں جمع کی جائے (یعنی وہ عدالت میں لے جائے جائیں) اسے بھی "چالان" کہا جائے گا۔ یہ لفظ ہندوستانی انگریزی میں مستعمل ہے، معیاری انگریزی میں نہیں ہے۔
     

    desi4life

    Senior Member
    English
    ^ That agrees with McGregor (Oxford Hindi dictionary), who considers chaalaan to be a Hindi word connected to the verb chalaanaa:

    चालान cālān [cf. H. calānā], f. 1. despatch, consignment; transportation (of goods); transfer (of money). 2. an invoice; bill of lading. 3. a remittance; memorandum of financial transactions. 4. clearance (as of customs). 5. the sending forward or up, committal (of a case, or a prisoner); colloq. booking.

    However, Turner (in his Nepali dictionary) considers it to be a loanword from Persian:

    चलान् calān, s. Order, permit, business order, remittance, consignment. [lw. H. cālān fr. Pers.]
     

    Xerîb

    New Member
    English & français
    Could the Dari word--in at least some of its senses--reflect Turkic influence? The first element recalls Turkic çal- as in Republican Turkish çalmak, "to strike" and çalıştırmak, "to make work, set to work, run, start up".
     

    Qureshpor

    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    Could the Dari word--in at least some of its senses--reflect Turkic influence? The first element recalls Turkic çal- as in Republican Turkish çalmak, "to strike" and çalıştırmak, "to make work, set to work, run, start up".
    Can't really comment, since I have no knowledge of Turkish.

    It is interesting to note that the word چالان is found in Steingass's Persian-English dictionary. I would never have guessed that this word has anything to do with Persian.

    چالان chālān, Invoice, bill of lading; transportation.

    And here is an entry from Platt's

    H & P چالان चालान ćālān [S. चालनं rt. चल्; or i.q. ćālānā = ćalānā, q.v.], s.m. An invoice or way-bill, bill of lading; a list (of letters, &c. sent); a certificate of despatch; a remittance; a memorandum of money received and invested; a pass, a passport; clearance (of a ship); sending up or forwarding (a case, or a prisoner, &c. to a magistrate, &c.); transportation:—ćālān-dār, s.m. The person who has charge of an invoice, the bearer of a despatch or remittance; an escort:—ćālān karnā, v.t. To send up (a case, or a prisoner, &c. to a magistrate), to commit (a prisoner) for trial; to forward an invoice (of).

    We should not be overly surprised to find Urdu words in Persian bearing in mind that Persian speaking peoples have a long history in India. After all if Urdu can have so many words of Persian origin, why can't Persian have a few too? Listening to Youtube videos, I have noticed this is especially true of Dari.

    Here is an "extreme" example from a letter written by the Emperor Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (1556-1605) to Vaalii-i-Ambar...

    -این لاڈلاءِ من است normally written این لاڈلائے من است۔

    H لاڙلا लाड़ला lāṛlā, or लाड़िला lāṛilā [lāṛ, q.v.+Prk. इल्लओ=S. इल+कः], adj. & s.m. (f. -ī), Darling, dear, beloved; tenderly nurtured; petted, spoilt (child);—a darling, a pet; one tenderly nurtured (syn. nāz-parwarda; nāznīn); a spoilt child.

    Having said all this, I am still of the view that چالان is Indic.
     

    iskander e azam

    Senior Member
    English
    ... chaaluu is not a corruption of chaalaan...

    چالو चालू ćālū [cf. H. ćalnā, ćāl], adj. 1. current, in force; continuing, in progress (as a show, a term). 2. in working order, active; on, available (a service). 3. frequented, busy (a street). 4. pej. cunning.

    چالو also has developed the meaning: (of a woman) having many lovers, promiscuous.

    Similar to the English word, goer (meaning 3).
     
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