Persian: Adjectives vs Adverbs With "an"

ali likes the stars

Senior Member
German, Persian
Hello guys,

I'm sometimes unsure about the correct usage of adjectives and adverbs with the suffix "an" (An, aan, ân) in Persian:

دقیق vs دقیقا

If I'm not mistaken, دقیق is an adjective that can describe nouns, while adding the suffix "an" will turn it into an adverb دقیقا that describes verbs.
So it should be نقاشی دقیق - a precise drawing -, versus دقیقا نقاشی کردن - to draw precisely.

And yet I think I only hear دقیقا in combination with بودن, e. g. این دقیقا همونه که تو خواستی.
But when it comes to ther verbs, I think it's more common to say دقیق بکش (draw precisely), or دقیق توضیح بده (explain in more detail).
Even Google Translate will return Tell me exactly for دقیق بگو.

What am I missing here? Is this just the grammar bending of colloquial speech?
Otherwise, what is the purpose of the suffix "an"?
 
  • truce

    Senior Member
    Persian
    It is no surprise to see that an adjective is used as an adverb. In Persian it is common to have adjectives as adverbs.
    Some examples:
    آرام بلند شو
    سریع حرکت کن
    یواش صحبت کن
    قشنگ راه برو
    بلند صحبت کن
    ترافیک سنگین حرکت میکند
    باران تند می بارد

    I should add that the adverb "دقیقا" is different from "به دقت" and these two adverbs can not be used interchangeably.
    دقیقا >>> exactly
    به دقت >>> carefully, precisely
     
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    PersoLatin

    Senior Member
    UK
    Persian - Iran
    It is no surprise to see that an adjective is used as an adverb. In Persian it is common to have adjectives as adverbs.

    Some examples:

    آرام بلند شو

    سریع حرکت کن

    یواش صحبت کن

    قشنگ راه برو

    بلند صحبت کن

    ترافیک سنگین حرکت میکند

    باران تند می بارد
    I agree and I'd like to add that use of adjectives as adverbs is not just 'common' but the only way in Persian, verbs turn adjectives to adverbs:

    او ‏آرام ‏است / he is calm -- adjective
    او آرام سخن میگوید / he speaks calmly -- adverb

    And yet I think I only hear دقیقا in combination with بودن, e. g. این دقیقا همونه که تو خواستی.

    But when it comes to ther verbs, I think it's more common to say دقیق بکش (draw precisely), or دقیق توضیح بده (explain in more detail).

    Even Google Translate will return Tell me exactly for دقیق بگو.
    Looking at these examples you might see the difference in use:

    دقیقا میدونه چی میگه / She knows precisely what she’s saying
    OR
    دقیقا یادشه / She remembers (it) precisely
    BUT
    دقیق مینویسه / She writes precisely

    This an/اً is an Arabic suffix (as you may well know). As adjectives turn to adverbs automatically in Persian, there's no need for this suffix on even Arabic words, as you can always use the adjective form of the word e.g. for دقیقا use دقیق. But when used on established Arabic words (and some invented ones) it is used correctly as an adverb (based on Arabic rules). In day-to-day speech it adds emphasis e.g. اصلا/at all, کاملا/completely etc.

    * an/اً is sometimes used on Persian words with is wrong e.g. ‏دوما ‏/dovvoman -secondly or سوما/sevvoman -thirdly etc, also some really silly new ones e.g. on خواهش etc.
     
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    ali likes the stars

    Senior Member
    German, Persian
    I should add that the adverb "دقیقا" is different from "به دقت" and these two adverbs can not be used interchangeably.
    دقیقا >>> exactly
    به دقت >>> carefully, precisely
    I wasn't aware of this, thank you. Is با دقت different from به دقت?

    This an/اً is an Arabic suffix (as you may well know). As adjectives turn to adverbs automatically in Persian, there's no need for this suffix on even Arabic words, as you can always use the adjective form of the word e.g. for دقیقا use دقیق. But when used on established Arabic words (and some invented ones) it is used correctly as an adverb (based on Arabic rules). In day-to-day speech it adds emphasis e.g. اصلا/at all, کاملا/completely etc.

    * an/اً is sometimes used on Persian words with is wrong e.g. ‏دوما ‏/dovvoman -secondly or سوما/sevvoman -thirdly etc, also some really silly new ones e.g. on خواهش etc.
    I see, thank you for this explanation. As for the counting, اولا is correct but it's wrong for the following?
     

    PersoLatin

    Senior Member
    UK
    Persian - Iran
    I wasn't aware of this, thank you. Is با دقت different from به دقت?
    These ultimately say the same thing but have different structures, بادقت means 'with care/attention' and بدقت is 'carefully', so the combination of ب + the noun form of adjective, makes an adverb, see these examples:

    کار را با ‏عجله/با دقت/بعجله/بدقت/بدرستی/درست انجام داد

    با ‏عجله/with haste بعجله/hurriedly

    با دقت/with care بدقت/carefully

    درست & بدرستی mean correctly/properly in this context, با درستی can also work & means ‘with correctness’
     

    Alfaaz

    Senior Member
    English
    ali likes the stars said:
    As for the counting, اولا is correct but it's wrong for the following?
    Extra information: Firstly through tenthly with tanwiin - اوّلاً، ثانیًا، ثالثًا، رابعًا، خامسًا، سادسًا، سابعًا، ثامنًا، تاسعًا، عاشرًا
    PersoLatin said:
    You can also use نخست/noxost for ‘first’
    Is there any difference between نخست and نخستین?
     

    ali likes the stars

    Senior Member
    German, Persian
    But when used on established Arabic words (and some invented ones) it is used correctly as an adverb (based on Arabic rules). In day-to-day speech it adds emphasis e.g. اصلا/at all, کاملا/completely etc.
    Come to think of it, can it have a negating function? As in ابد > ابدا ? Or why does "eternity" here becomes "never"?

    These ultimately say the same thing but have different structures, بادقت means 'with care/attention' and بدقت is 'carefully', so the combination of ب + the noun form of adjective, makes an adverb, see these examples:
    Again, this was very helpful. Thank you.
     

    PersoLatin

    Senior Member
    UK
    Persian - Iran
    Is there any difference between نخست and نخستین?
    Suffix ین in نخستین is the same as those in شیرین سنگین دومین پیشین ننگین

    So نخست/یکم means ‘first’ & نخستین/یکمین means ‘the first’ (having ‘first’ qualities)
     
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    PersoLatin

    Senior Member
    UK
    Persian - Iran
    Extra information: Firstly through tenthly with tanwiin - اوّلاً، ثانیًا، ثالثًا، رابعًا، خامسًا، سادسًا، سابعًا، ثامنًا، تاسعًا، عاشرًا
    ثانیًا، ثالثًا، رابعًا are used in Persian but the rest not much.
     
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