Phoneme vs segment

braun

Member
Arabic
Good day
What is the difference between them?
This is related to some linguistics issues that I'm facing it now

I know the meaning of "Phoneme", but I don't about "Segment". Sometimes I think they are synonyms and we can use them interchangeably
Need your help
Thank you
 
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  • dojibear

    Senior Member
    AE (US English)
    To me a phoneme is a sound that makes a difference in a specific language. Each languages has a set of sounds, that "are different" to people who speak that language. Those are phonemes. Two sounds may be different phonemes in one language, but the same phoneme in another language.

    For example, Japanese only has 5 vowel phonemes. English has around 15. In English, these words use 10 different vowel phonemes: bat, bet, bit, bite, bait, boat, bot, bought, boot, but. In English those 10 sounds produce 10 different words, so they are phonemes.

    According to wikipedia:

    In linguistics, a segment is "any discrete unit that can be identified, either physically or auditorily, in the stream of speech. The term is most used in phonetics and phonology to refer to the smallest elements in a language, and this usage can be synonymous with the term phone. In spoken languages, segments will typically be grouped into consonants and vowels,

    Segments include vowel sounds and consonant sounds. So segments include phonemes. But "segments" are independent of language. If a trained linquist hears 2 different sounds, those are 2 different segments. But they may be the same phoneme is a language.
     

    braun

    Member
    Arabic
    To me a phoneme is a sound that makes a difference in a specific language. Each languages has a set of sounds, that "are different" to people who speak that language. Those are phonemes. Two sounds may be different phonemes in one language, but the same phoneme in another language.

    For example, Japanese only has 5 vowel phonemes. English has around 15. In English, these words use 10 different vowel phonemes: bat, bet, bit, bite, bait, boat, bot, bought, boot, but. In English those 10 sounds produce 10 different words, so they are phonemes.

    According to wikipedia:

    In linguistics, a segment is "any discrete unit that can be identified, either physically or auditorily, in the stream of speech. The term is most used in phonetics and phonology to refer to the smallest elements in a language, and this usage can be synonymous with the term phone. In spoken languages, segments will typically be grouped into consonants and vowels,

    Segments include vowel sounds and consonant sounds. So segments include phonemes. But "segments" are independent of language. If a trained linquist hears 2 different sounds, those are 2 different segments. But they may be the same phoneme is a language.
    Thank you so much mr. dojibear👍🏽

    But to be honest, I feel I didn't get the point
    I think I need more examples
    If anyone can provide some examples or pictures, it will help alot. 😅
     

    entangledbank

    Senior Member
    English - South-East England
    The difference comes when you bring in 'suprasegmentals', things like stress and tone that don't belong to a single segment but affect a range of them. These might make a difference between words in the same way as segments can be phonemes. The position of stress is phonemic in English; the choice of simple or compound tone is phonemic in Swedish. I can't think of an example in (Classical) Arabic, because there stress is determined by segmental features such as length, so it can't be phonemically distinctive.
     

    Perseas

    Senior Member
    Here's an example I found in the following webpage:
    For example consider the different pronunciations of [t] in the words tunafish and starfish. The [t] of tunafish is aspirated. [...] a [t] following an initial s is unaspirated;...
    What is the difference between a phone and a phoneme? - voxforge.org

    In this example, /t/ is a phoneme with two realizations (phones or segments): [t] in tunafish and [t] starfish.
     
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    Layth 66

    New Member
    Arabic
    Good day
    What is the difference between them?
    This is related to some linguistics issues that I'm facing it now

    I know the meaning of "Phoneme", but I don't about "Segment". Sometimes I think they are synonyms and we can use them interchangeably
    Need your help
    Thank you
    Well , for me the segments as defined by peter roach ( the continuous stream of sounds) that mean we can deal with segment mentally, on other words segments never be isolated part of sound but phonemes can be isolated if we consider every sound is a phoneme put we can not consider the sound as segment since we can not feel it when we produce the speech sounds.
     
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