Portmanteaux

xebonyx

Senior Member
TR/AR/EN
Would the noun "بسملة"(bismala) be considered a portmanteau in Arabic; consisting of "bi-ism and Allah"? If not, can anyone provide me with examples of combined words in Fus7a? I'd be interested in knowing if they exist outside of the dialects.

هل العالى مثلا كلمة منحوت من إثنين أو أكثر كلمات؟ إذا ما كان كذلك فالرجاء توفير بعض كلمات كهذه. أنا سأكون متهمة بمعرفة إن تجدها في الكلام غير عامية.
شكرا!


 
  • asadxyz

    Senior Member
    USA
    English
    Dear !if you want to say that word بسملة is word like "smog" is in English = smoke + fog
    ,then it is not true.
    Firstly , as far as I know its correct shape is "بسمل " .It is the verb form.As a noun it can be as "albasmalah" البسملة or بسملة
    Secondly it is pronounceds as "basmala" (baa maftooh) at the scale of "فعلل "fa3lala".Since it is a verb by definition so first letter cannot be maksoor as you put it.(exception is in some other ثلاثى مزيد )
    It means
    بسمل = He said "Bismillahi"
    These words are used for brevity sake.It is not the only there are more on other scales like
    Kabbara = he said "Allaaho Akbar"
    Sabbaha = He said "Subhanallah)
    Hallala = He said 'Laa ilaaha illallah"
    Istarja3a = He said "Inna lillahi wa inna ilaihi raaji3oon"

    وكَبَّرَ قال: الله أَكبر
    بَسْمَلَ: قال: بسمِ الله.​

    وسَبَّح الرجلُ: قال سبحان الله؛​

    وتَرَجَّع الرجل عند المُصِيبة واسْتَرْجَع: قال إِنّا لله وإِنا إِليه راجعون​

    وهَلَّلَ الرجلُ أَي قال لا إِله إِلا الله​

    examples are mainly from Lisaan ul Arab and Qamoos ul Muheet.

    Use of such short verb to indicate a whole sentence is call technically as "Qasr"
     

    Abu Bishr

    Senior Member
    Afrikaans, South Africa
    Hi all

    It is a phenomenon in Arabic known as al-naHt (which lit. means 'to chisel or carve out from wood or stone'), and here are some examples from Classical Arabic:

    حيْعَل (Hay'ala) to say: حَيّ عَلَى (الْفَلاَح)ـ

    حَوْقَل (Hawqala) to say: لاَ حَوْلَ وَلاَ قَوَّةَ إِلاّ بِاللهِ

    بأْبَأَ (ba'ba'a) to say: بأَبِيْ أَنْتَ ...ـ

    عَبْشَمِيّ ('abshami) related to Abdul-Shams

    دَمْعَزَ (dam'aza) to say: أَدَامَ اللهُ عِزَّكَ

    طَبْقَلَ (Tabqala) to say: أَطَالَ اللهُ بَقَاءَكَ

    etc.

    Ps. If you google النحت في العربية or الاشتقاق النحتي , you might find more examples.
     

    Josh_

    Senior Member
    U.S., English
    Some modern ones I can think of off hand are:

    قروسطي medieval, from قرن century and وسط middle.

    رأسمال capital, from رأس head and مال money -- actually this is probably more of a compound word than it is a portmanteau.

    برمائي amphibious -- from برّ land and ماء water.

    فوصوتي supersonic -- from فوق above and صوت sound.

    قبتاريخي prehistoric -- from قبل before and تاريخ history
     

    Mahaodeh

    Senior Member
    Arabic, PA and IA.
    I don't know if it applies on رأسمال; it's definitly not a new term (it's in the Quran), it's sometimes seperated (رأس مال), it's always seperated in the plural form (رؤوس أموال) and in the dictionaries, even the newer ones, it's always seperate. I think that it's probably a spelling mistake to join the two words.
     

    Wadi Hanifa

    Senior Member
    Arabic
    Yes but it's not seperated in رأسمالية. Sometimes people use the plural رساميل as well.
     

    asadxyz

    Senior Member
    USA
    English
    I don't know if it applies on رأسمال; it's definitly not a new term (it's in the Quran), it's sometimes seperated (رأس مال), it's always seperated in the plural form (رؤوس أموال) and in the dictionaries, even the newer ones, it's always seperate. I think that it's probably a spelling mistake to join the two words.

    Dear Sister
    I have tried to locate this combined term in the Quran through search engine but could not find.
    I tried two dictionaries for Quranic words
    المعجم المفهرس لالفاظ القران
    and another book whose reference is below.
    الكتاب : معجم كلمات القرآن الكريم
    المؤلف: أ.د. محمد زكي محمد خضر
    رءس
    الرَّأْسُ (1) بِرَأْسِ (1) بِرَأْسِي (1) بِرُءُوسِكُم (1) رَأْسِهِ (3) رَأْسِي (1) رُءُوسَكُم (2) رُءُوسَهُم (2) رُءُوسُ (2) رُءُوسِهِم (3) رُءُوسِهِمُ (1)

    But unfortunately ,I was not successful to find it.
    Would you please help to post Chapter No. and Verse No.?
    Thanks in advance.
     

    asadxyz

    Senior Member
    USA
    English
    It is present but not in combined form .These are separate words in the Quran

    فَإِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلُوا فَأْذَنُوا بِحَرْبٍ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَإِنْ تُبْتُمْ فَلَكُمْ رُءُوسُ أَمْوَالِكُمْ لَا تَظْلِمُونَ وَلَا تُظْلَمُونَ (279) [البقرة/279]
    Probably she was talking about رأسمال
    I thought Quran has used this combinded construction which I am missing.
     

    Mahaodeh

    Senior Member
    Arabic, PA and IA.
    Yes but it's not seperated in رأسمالية. Sometimes people use the plural رساميل as well.

    Yes, I forgot about this one :thumbsup:. My point was that رأسمال itself is probably a spelling mistake; but you are right about رأسمالية, it's a portmanteau (however you pronounce that :)).
     

    Josh_

    Senior Member
    U.S., English
    A few more I just came across:

    عبشم (l3abshama) to worship the sun -- from عبد to worship and شمس sun.

    جلمد (jalmada) to be petrified -- from جلد to freeze and جمد to harden. From this root we get جلمود (julmuud) boulder.

    فذلك (fadhlaka) to say فذلك كذا وكذا .
     

    xebonyx

    Senior Member
    TR/AR/EN
    Thanks everyone! Asad, sorry for pronouncing the word wrong, but either way, I figured most would know what I meant. I'm sure I would have found the error later.
     

    Abu Bishr

    Senior Member
    Afrikaans, South Africa
    Hi everybody

    Another interesting example is: فَنْقَلَ (fanqala) which is used for referring to the following expression: إِنْ قُلْتَ قُلْتُ (If you say such-and-such then I will say: such-and-such).

    I do believe that the principle underlying al-naHt (creating Arabic words from Arabic compound expressions) is also at work in the creation of Arabic words from foreign epressions in certain cases, such as:

    فَبْرَكَة (fabrakah) for 'fabrication'

    أكْسَدَة (aksadah) for 'oxydation'

    فَرْمَتَة (farmatah) for 'formatting'

    أتْمَتَة (atmatah) for 'automising'

    تَلْفَنَة (talfanah) for 'telephony'

    It appears, therefore, that the form فعْلَلَ (fa'lala) or فَعْلَلَة (fa'lalah) is quite a convenient form for not only forming new Arabic words from compound expressions but also new Arabic words from foreign expresions.
     

    Abu Bishr

    Senior Member
    Afrikaans, South Africa
    I didn't say that they are instances of النحت . I only said that the underlying principle for the two processes seems to be the same. Technically, I can't change the definition of النحت , but I can find a resemblance of it in the formation of Arabic words from foreign words - a process called by another another like التعريب , but then التعريب can also include a whole host of other things that do not show the above principle at work which is the use of the form of 'fa'lala' as a way to represent both Arabic compound expressions and foreign expressions.
     
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