prepositions

Cześć,

How do you say the following:

In front of me/you/him/her/it/us/them/you (plural).
Behind me/you/him/her/it/us/them/you (plural).
To the left of me/you/him/her/it/us/them/you (plural).
To the right of me/you/him/her/it/us/them/you (plural).
Above me/you/him/her/it/us/them/you (plural).
Below me/you/him/her/it/us/them/you (plural).

Dzękuje,
Drei
 
  • Monica610

    Senior Member
    Polish
    Naprzeciwko mnie/ciebie/jego/jej/tego/nas/ich/was
    Za mną/tobą/nim/nią/tym/nami/nimi/wami
    Na lewo ode mnie/od ciebie/od niego/od niej/od tego/od nas/od nich/od was
    Na prawo ode mnie/od ciebie/od niego/od niej/od tego/od nas/od nich/od was
    Nade mną/ nad tobą/ nad nim/nią/tym/nami/nimi/wami
    Pode mną/pod tobą /pod nim/nią/tym/nami/nimi/wami
     

    Thomas1

    Senior Member
    polszczyzna warszawska
    Cześć,

    How do you say the following:

    In front of me/you/him/her/it/us/them/you (plural).
    Behind me/you/him/her/it/us/them/you (plural).
    To the left of me/you/him/her/it/us/them/you (plural).
    To the right of me/you/him/her/it/us/them/you (plural).
    Above me/you/him/her/it/us/them/you (plural).
    Below me/you/him/her/it/us/them/you (plural).

    Dziękuję,
    Drei

    Cześć Drei,

    Miło Cię znów widzieć na forum języków słowiańskich. :)

    In front of me/you/him/her/it/us/them/you (plural).
    Naprzeciw(ko) mnie/ciebie/jego/jej/*/nas/ich/was.
    I think we use naprzeciwko more often, especially in speach.

    Behind me/you/him/her/it/us/them/you (plural).
    Za mną/tobą/nim/nią/*/nami/nimi/wami.

    To the left of me/you/him/her/it/us/them/you (plural).
    Na lewo ode mnie/od ciebie/niego/niej/*/nas/nich/was.

    To the right of me/you/him/her/it/us/them/you (plural).
    Na prawo ode mnie/od ciebie/niego/niej/*/nas/nich/was.

    Above me/you/him/her/it/us/them/you (plural).
    Nade mną/nad tobą/nią/*/nami/nimi/wami.

    Below me/you/him/her/it/us/them/you (plural).
    Pode mną/ pod tobą/nim/nią/*/nami/nimi/wami.

    *we don't actually have this for neutral gender singular if we need it we use masculin forms of demonstratives.

    Note that only mnie takes ode/pode the rest is used with od/pod.



    Tom

    EDIT: I see I was beaten up to the punch. :)
     

    cajzl

    Senior Member
    Czech
    In Czech such prepositions usually take two different cases:

    za tebe (acc.) vs. za tebou (instr.)

    I guess it is the same in Polish.

    I should add the reflexive personal pronoun (siebie?, sebą?) when it refers to the subject of a sentence (non-existing in English).

    e.g. Vidíme ho za sebou. - Widzimy go za sebą???.
     

    Thomas1

    Senior Member
    polszczyzna warszawska
    In Czech such prepositions usually take two different cases:

    za tebe (acc.) vs. za tebou (instr.)

    I guess it is the same in Polish.
    Yes, you're partly right. There's, however, a difference and not each of the prepositions given by Drei can take on two different forms.

    If you use the accusative case here, e.g. : za ciebie; it will mean something different, i.e. istead of you. Whereas, using instrumental case implies they very idea intended by Drei (applies to za and pod).

    I should add the reflexive personal pronoun (siebie?, sebą?) when it refers to the subject of a sentence (non-existing in English).

    e.g. Vidíme ho za sebou. - Widzimy go za sebą???.
    Yet, I'd be very much inclined to use nami here it sounds more palatable to me. When I ponder it more deeply so suggests that we see him behind himself--that sounds weird.:confused:



    Tom
     

    cajzl

    Senior Member
    Czech
    I have found the following Polish sentence:

    Mamy to za sobą. (Máme to za sebou.)

    which has exactly the same structure like "Widzimy go za sobą".
    I think it means "Mamy to za nami" (= ...behind us, and not ...behind itself).

    Anyway I wanted to mention that the reflexive personal pronoun can replace the other personal pronouns in certain circumstaces.
     

    Marga H

    Senior Member
    Poland,Polish
    I have found the following Polish sentence:

    Mamy to za sobą. (Máme to za sebou.)

    which has exactly the same structure like "Widzimy go za sobą".
    I think it means "Mamy to za nami" (= ...behind us, and not ...behind itself).

    prAnyway I wanted to mention that the reflexive personal pronoun can replace the other personal onouns in certain circumstaces.
    Yes,when the subject and object are the same.
    Naprzeciw siebie,przed sobą,na lewo lub na prawo od siebie,nad sobą,pod sobą can replace any personal pronoun.
    Pozdrowienia.
     

    Thomas1

    Senior Member
    polszczyzna warszawska
    Cajzl, thanks for a stimulating discussion. I must admit I have never thought about it, now I’ve done some research and here are my conclusions.


    The reflexive pronouns are used instead of personal pronouns if the intended meaning of what is being discussed in a sentence (i.e. action expressed by the verb) applies to the subject of the action in question, regardless to its number and gender. This, however, may bring about some changes in the meaning and to avoid equivocation/ambiguity it is sometimes better to use personal pronouns.
    Thus, the following sentence:
    Wykładowca uczy studentów odpowiedniego dla siebie rozdziału historii.
    is semantically pervert since the subject of the verb is wykładowca and the reflexive pronoun (siebie) applies to it and not to the compliment of the verb, i.e. studentów who are the true receivers of the suitable lecture.
    Have a look at the second pair:
    On ma to pod sobą.
    Here, nim would not be correct as it would suggest that he has it under someone/something else of masculine gender.
    To leży pod nim.
    Here, in turn, sobą is inappropriate since the probability that something lies under itself is highly unlikely.
    So you need to be careful when using reflexive pronouns since the meaning can be contrary to what you really intend.
    Therefore, it isn’t true that you can replace any personal pronoun by a reflexive one because the meaning changes.
    The sentence in your last post is quite true:
    […]the reflexive personal pronoun can replace the other personal pronouns in certain circumstances.
    One note on your last example:

    I have found the following Polish sentence:

    Mamy to za sobą. (Máme to za sebou.)

    which has exactly the same structure like "Widzimy go za sobą".
    I think it means "Mamy to za nami" (= ...behind us, and not ...behind itself).
    [...]
    The sentence, you give, uses the same construction but without context the meaning of it is not what you think it is (unless you’ve already found it out). The phrase is very often used in the context of going through something cumbersome/ disturbing. Thus, you can use it in the following context:
    Bardzo się denerwowaliśmy z powodu tego egzaminu z propedeutyki. Nareszcie mamy to za sobą i możemy pójść się gdzieś zabawić.
    or
    Jego operacja trwała ponad 6 godzin i teraz Kamil wraca do siebie. Dobrze, że mamy to już za sobą, ta niepewność co do jego szans przeżycia była nie do zniesienia.

    Anyway, the context is everything here otherwise the sentence is equivocal or even ambiguous, nevertheless, the point you raised is now well-understood by me.


    Regards,
    Tom
     
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