Hello everybody! The present perfect has a wide range of applications. Here are some that I've come across so far and I think I have a very good understanding of them. To describe an action that started in the past and still continues (My cousin has been in AA since 2000). To describe something that has happened in one's lifetime and has the potency of happening again (I've flown in a helicopter many times). To describe a change over time that is evident now (You've become almost fluent in German since you picked up that language course). Now what still baffles me is the present perfect used for past events that have an impact on the present (a past occurrence with a result now). Numerous grammar pages out there indicate that it's okay to say things like "Clair has broken her leg, so she can't play basketball today". However, apparently it's incorrect to say that "I've broken my car, so I can't give you a ride" when a friend of mine wants me to take them somewhere and has no idea of what state my car is in currently. I find it very confusing. More examples of the use of the present perfect in question that I scraped together on the Internet (or should it be "that I've scraped together"?). A storm has blown down the telephone lines. We’re stuck here! I've lost my keys. I can't get into the house. Someone has eaten my soup! I have nothing more to eat. Mom, Kevin has let the cat out. The cat is outside! And this one I remember I saw in the Fellowship of the Rings by J.R.R. Tolkien, spoken by Gandalf to Sam Gamgee who was eavesdropping by Frodo's window - "Why did you listen and what have you heard?" Can you please comment on just when it is appropriate to refer to a past action with a result in the present using the present perfect?