This is an interesting question. I can't think of a single word that deals specifically with life planning. "Strategic" comes to mind, but he could be strategic about something other than life goals. The same applies to "farseeing", in my opinion, and every word I can think of, for that matter.
"Goal-oriented" implies a person who would set goals and take steps to achieve them. It is a character trait that would most likely be evident in his personal affairs and career planning as well. "Prudent" gives the impression of someone who is careful and methodical in his dealings, but more cautious about it.