Pronunciation: -er = [-ɐ]?


Senior Member
Moderator note: Split from here. shows immer as [ˈɪmɐ] - is this a mistake by any chance?
Because I was rather expecting [ˈɪmə] and besides, I've never seen this symbol: ɐ in any phonetical transcript.
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  • berndf

    German (Germany)
    No, that's correct. German (contrary to English) has phonemic contrast between [ə] and [ɐ]:
    eine = /aɪnə/
    = /aɪnɐ/

    The two reduced vowels /ə/ and /ɐ/ are also called e-Schwa and a-Schwa.

    The symbol stands for the near open central unrounded oral vowel. It overlays with the German short "a". The only difference is that the short "a" /a/ is a full vowel and /ɐ/ is, like /ə/, a reduced vowel. If it weren't for this full-reduced vowel difference, it would probably be better to transcribe the short "a" /ɐ/ as well.


    Senior Member
    You can compare this sound with English "Doctor" in the early Doctor Who series.

    In case of "immer" there are a lot of variants.
    I speak it usually a little bit sliding from
    ə to ɐ: einer = /aɪnəɐ/ (I'm not sure if this is correct IPA)
    But there is no difference in meaning.
    The important contrast is between ə and ɐ
    eine = /aɪnə/
    = /aɪnɐ/ (in my case female /aɪnə/ vs. male /aɪnəɐ/ sliding from e-schwa to a-schwa - may be this is regional)
    as Bernd mentioned.