Punjabi: common word inflections


Senior Member
English, Gujarati & Urdu

I would like to know the Punjabi equivalents to common inflections like these in Hindi:

Future tense:
(Hindi - "-enge"). For example: woh khaayenge (He will eat)

Past tense:
(Hindi - "thaa") For example: usne khaayaa thaa (He ate)

Present tense:
(Hindi - "hai") For example: woh khaataa hai (He eats)/woh khaa rahaaN hai (He is eating)

I think looking at these will give me a better grasp of how Punjabi works (kind of anyway!)

If you'd like to add anything, that's be great!
  • panjabigator

    Senior Member
    Am. English
    Oh boy! Let's see here.

    Future tense
    There are two ways of expressing the future. The first is parallel to Urdu's: Verb endings. I believe you know Gurmukhi, correct? If you need it to be included, just let me know. Masculine first then feminine.

    There are times when the future tense has a /v/ in it and times when it doesn't. Simply put, it depends on the following sound. If it's a vowel, it can be used. If not, then no /v/. But, to make matters more complex, in some dialects, there is no v sound at all. Anyway, there is no trend that I can reflect in my family, so know that some speakers will say things differently, but you will be understood.

    I will eat. /mai.n khaavaa.ngaa/ /khaavaa.ngii/
    You will eat. (informal) /tuu.n khaae.ngaa/ /khaae.ngii/
    You will eat. (formal) /tuusii.n khaavoge/
    --note: I believe that gramatically a feminine version does exist, but it is not used by any speaker I have met. And my parents have corrected me against it's use in both Hindi's and Panjabi's /aap/ and /tusii.n/, respectively.
    He/she will eat. (proximal) /eh khaavegaa/ /khaavegii/
    He/she will eat. (distal) /oh khaavegaa/ /khaavegii/

    For this one, change the /eh/ and /oh/ accordingly to reflect proximity.
    They will eat. /eh khaavange/ /khaavangiyaa.n/

    We will eat. /asii.n khaavaa.nge/ /khaavaa.ngiyaa.n/

    Let me know what issues you have on the future tense. I will add past and present later. Personally, I feel those deserve their own thread (nudge nudge mods).