reading and gardening

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Tenacious Learner

Senior Member
Spanish
Hi teachers,
Sentence:
He likes to spend his time reading and gardening.
Question:
Is "reading and gardening" a present participle or a gerund? Is it an adverb phrase because it answers, how does he spend his time?

Thanks in advance.
 
  • Cenzontle

    Senior Member
    English, U.S.
    Yes, you are right.
    The English gerund acts like a noun: "Reading and gardening are his favorite pastimes." You can easily replace them with nouns: "Horticulture and literature are..."
    But in your sentence we can't replace them with nouns: "He likes to spend his time literature and horticulture.":cross:
     

    Tenacious Learner

    Senior Member
    Spanish
    The English gerund acts like a noun: "Reading and gardening are his favorite pastimes." You can easily replace them with nouns: "Horticulture and literature are..."
    But in your sentence we can't replace them with nouns: "He likes to spend his time literature and horticulture.":cross:
    Thanks for your help, Cen.

    TL
     

    Tenacious Learner

    Senior Member
    Spanish
    Hi again,
    I know that an adverb phrase is two or more words that act as an adverb. It can modify a verb, adverb, or adjective and can tell “how”, “where”, “why”, or “when.”

    In my sentence, "He likes to spend his time reading and gardening.", the adverb phrase "reading and gardening" modifies the verb "spend".
    My question:
    What puzzles me is the ending, "-ing". It can easily be confused with a gerund. How can I tell students that it's not a gerund? Just because it isn't acting as a noun?
    I'm asking this because I've seen many "adverb phrases" on the net ad none of them use an "-ing" ending.
    So, I really doubt that "reading and gardening" can be an adverbial phrase.

    TL
     
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