This is quite a technical subject.
There are risk-free rates, where there is zero chance that the borrower will default (not pay back the principal); traditionally, this means goverment bonds. Everything else is risky, meaning that there is a chance of default. Because of the risk, risky interest rates are higher than risk-free ones.
Try "tassi di interessi a lungo termine reali rischiosi."
The meaning of the expression is clear, but I don't think your translation (like mine) fits into Italian. It seems to be farraginous.
I'm not certain that 'real' is clear. I gave an explanation of the rest, because it seemed to me that your '... e rischioso' didn't fit the idea of 'risky rates'.
'Farraginous' doesn't exist in English. I looked up 'farraginoso = confused'. I quite like that. Does it come from 'farina'?
I think technical phrases like this are liable to sound awkward, even in the original, except to experts who are used to the pile-up of adjectives.
I think this has a different meaning from the original. The sentence in English is not concerned with managing the risks associated with long-term interest rates. It is making a distinction between risk-free and risky interest rates.I macroeconomisti hanno discusso le difficoltà della Fed a gestire i rischi legati ai tassi d'interessi reali a lungo termine.