reduced clauses

Discussion in 'English Only' started by chiyaan vikram, Aug 4, 2016.

  1. chiyaan vikram

    chiyaan vikram Senior Member

    india- hindi

    With the constitutional amendment Bill passed in the Rajya Sabha, corporate India is keen to witness the historic development in the country's indirect tax regime.

    Passed - is it reduced clause?
    With the constitutional amendment bill which was passed in the Rajya Sabha..
  2. Franco-filly Senior Member

    Southern England
    English - Southern England
    With (i.e. as a result of) the constitutional amendment Bill having been passed..
  3. chiyaan vikram

    chiyaan vikram Senior Member

    india- hindi
    I did not get it..
    Some members on this forum is saying that " was" is removed from the sentences means it is a non finite reduced clauses...

    1. Is it a reduced relative clause?
    2. How do u recognize that reduced relative clause is used in a sentence?
    Last edited: Aug 4, 2016
  4. Hermione Golightly

    Hermione Golightly Senior Member

    British English
    There are different sorts of reduced clause. This can't be a relative reduced sort because no relative can be fitted in and there's no main verb.

    I describe it as a reduced prepositional clause. The preposition is 'with', which needs to be followed by a noun or a verbal-noun, sometimes called a gerund. It's this non-finite past passive verbal noun 'having been passed' that has been reduced to passed.

    is being used with the idiomatic meaning of time, something like, 'since' or 'now that'.
    'Now that the bill has been passed'
    would be an alternative clause.

    The non-finite parts are 'having been' which is a past passive gerund and the past participle of the verb pass. It's a phrase because it never had a main finite verb.
    (The finite form would be has/have been passed)

    We do not always need to bother about expressing the passive nature of the verb form because often we don't need to say who performed the action. Either we know or we don't know or it doesn't especially interest us.

    This is the "middle ground" that has been mentioned before.
    Look at this example:
    "The bill has passed the House of Lords".
    Why isn't this passive, "The bill has been passed by the House of Lords"?
    A bill can't pass itself! True, but we talk as if it can, because we know that it was passed by the members of the House of Lords.
    We very often talk as if things can act of their own volition when we aren't bothered or don't need to say who the agent was. If you keep an eye out you'll find numerous examples. We don't really like the passive and only use it when we need to. These reduced clauses do what the label says: they reduce the number of words needed to express an idea effectively.

    "The engine started at once".
    "The plane landed on time"
    "Dinner finished early that evening"

    I think I agree with them although it would be better to know where this was said.

    Have you already asked about this sentence?

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