Rules for formation of the past tense of passive verbs

άρτος

Member
English
I am doing some revision of the past (αόριστος) form of passive verbs and finding it difficult to predict what it should be. Are there any general rules that will help to fix this in my memory?
 
  • διαφορετικός

    Senior Member
    Swiss German - Switzerland
    Create the passive aorist out of the passive aorist stem:
    Add ηκ and the personal endings α, ες, ε, αμε, ατε, αν(ε)

    But how can you get the passive aorist stem? I have derived the following rules from the most regular verbs. But maybe it is easier to learn the (passive) aorist stem of each deponent verb separately.

    Classify the verb by its ending:
    • ομαι → type I (no stress on the ending)
    • other endings (stress on the ending) → type II
      • ιέμαι → type IIA „ιέ/ιό“ (present with „άω“)
      • ώμαι → type IIA „ώ/άσ“ (present without „άω“)
      • ούμαι → type IIB „είσαι“
      • άμαι, ούμαι → type IIB „άσαι“
    Remove the present ending → you get the present stem.

    Create the passive aorist stem out of the present stem:
    Type I: remove the final consonant(s) and add θ, στ, φτ, υτ, or χτ.
    Type II: add ηθ (most regular forms) or αστ, εθ, or αχτ.
     
    Last edited:

    sotos

    Senior Member
    Greek
    I think there is no difference depending on the accentuation of the paralegousa. e.g. λύν-ομαι --> λυν-όμουν, λύ-θηκα. Κοιμ-άμαι --> κοιμ-όμουν, κοιμ-ήθηκα. It seems that in the aorist 1st person the accent goes always on the pro-paralegousa.
     
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