Sanskrit: tenopasaMkrāman and nyaSīdan

rickymut

Member
Chinese
atha khalu saṃbahulā bhikṣavo yena bhagavāṃstenopasaṃkrāman| upasaṃkramya bhagavataḥ pādau śirobhirabhivandya bhagavantaṃ triṣpradakṣiṇīkṛtya ekānte nyaṣīdan from Vajracchedikā

Here the subject of both tenopasaMkrāman and nyaSīdan is "saṃbahulā bhikṣavo", then why the two present active participles present as singular number? thanks a lot!
 
  • Panditammanya

    New Member
    English - USA, Tamil
    I can't figure out the first verb, but nyaṣīdan is not a participle; rather, it is the 3rd person plural imperfect (you can tell by the augment a appearing after the prefix ni and before the root sīd). It is plural in agreement with bhikṣavo as you would expect.

    More generally, since this looks like a Buddhist text, I would like to mention that many of these are not entirely grammatically "correct" from the point of view of Classical Sanskrit. (This language is actually called Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit in the scholarly literature.) So it's possible that the former verb is also intended to be an imperfect, and the augment is simply missing.
     

    Panditammanya

    New Member
    English - USA, Tamil
    Also, it just struck me that the paired correlatives yena ... tena in the first sentence might be used where Classical Sanskrit would use yatra ... tatra. Indeed, even in Cl. S. the instrumental case can be used with words indicating directions, though I've never seen a usage quite like the one here. If this is the case, and the verb is indeed an augmentless imperfect, then the sentence makes sense ("Now many monks approached the place where the Blessed One was.").
     

    Dib

    Senior Member
    Bengali (India)
    More generally, since this looks like a Buddhist text, I would like to mention that many of these are not entirely grammatically "correct" from the point of view of Classical Sanskrit. (This language is actually called Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit in the scholarly literature.) So it's possible that the former verb is also intended to be an imperfect, and the augment is simply missing.

    I believe, this is the correct interpretation, e.g. Edgerton. "Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar" p. 153:
    Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar

    It quotes the exact phrase "yena ... tenopasaṃkrāman" as a frequent example of augmentless imperfect.
     

    rickymut

    Member
    Chinese
    Thank both of you very much. your answers are very good and clear. I've got your points. I am a beginner in Sanskrit. I tried to learn the grammar by heart but it's a big pity that i am not familiar with it yet. There are still a lot for me to learn. Thanks again.
     
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