Scarcity & affluence

ThomasK

Senior Member
Belgium, Dutch
In times of crisis this is a pair of words that may be inspirational. It is not the same as poverty and riches: rich people may suffer scarcity, poor people may find affluence... Affluence rather refers to plenitude, scarcity refers to perception (!) of shortage, often not corresponding with an objective shortage or lack: some people may be rich, but they never have enough, and will always suffer scarcity - whereas some other people need little, and thus enjoy affluence... How do you translate those words?

Dutch: schaarste & overvloed (overflowing, literally). [Schaarste is not used in other contexts]
 
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  • In Greek:

    Scarcity:
    A/ «Έλλειψη» ('elipsi, f.); Classical third declension feminine noun «ἔλλειψις» ('ĕlleipsīs)--> falling short, defect. Compound, prefix and preposition «ἐν» (ĕn)--> in, into + verb «λείπω» ('leipō, 'lipo in the modern language)--> to leave, leave behind, quit, be absent (PIE base *leikʷ-, to leave behind). «Έλλειψη» is lit. the insufficiency, shortage, of something required.
    B/ «Ανεπάρκεια» (ane'parcia, f.); Learned (Katharevousa) feminine noun appearing for the first time in 1859 in order to render the medical term "deficiency". Compound, privative prefix «ἀν-» (an-) + Classical adj. «ἐπαρκής, -ής, -ές» (ĕpār'kēs, m,f/ĕpār'kĕs, n.)--> sufficient. PIE *ark-, to hold, contain, guard.
    C/ «Σπανιότητα» (spani'otita, f.); Classical feminine noun «σπάνις» ('spānīs) or «σπανιότης» (spănĭ'ŏtēs)--> lack, scarcity, rarity. With unknown etymology.

    Affluence:
    A/ «Αφθονία» (afθo'nia, f.); Classical feminine noun «ἀφθονία» (ăpʰtʰŏ'nīă)--> init. freedom from envy or grudging, later, abundancy, affluence. Compound, privative prefix «ἀ-» (a-) + masculine noun «φθόνος» (pʰ'tʰŏnŏs, f'θonos in modern pronunciation)--> envy, grudge (PIE base *gʷedh-, to beat, break, hurt).
    B/ «Ευπορία» (efpo'ria, f.); Classical feminine noun «εὐπορία» (eupŏ'rīă)--> init. ease of doing things, later, abundance, affluence. Compound, Classical adv. «εὐ-» (eu-)--> well + masculine noun «πόρος» ('pŏrŏs)--> way or means of achieving, accomplishing (PIE base *per-, through).
    C/ «Πλούτος» ('plutos, m.); Classical masculine noun «πλοῦτος» ('ploutŏs)--> wealth, riches, abundance, affluence. PIE base *pleu-, to flow, float.

    The pair of words that fits in times of crisis, is «Έλλειψη & Αφθονία».
     

    ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    Thanks again. Then I guess
    - euporia is the opposite of aporia (the word aporie is common in learned Dutch)
    - aneparcia
    : could there be a link with the French épargner (save) ? I can't find it, but ...
    - do some of the words in the scarcity refer to lack in a very general sense (I suppose they all do, but scarcity is more general, it seems to me)
    - Αφθονία is the perfect word indeed
    (Have you seen Έλλειψη or Αφθονία turn up in recent news reports? I guess not, but just asking)
     
    Thanks again. Then I guess
    - euporia is the opposite of aporia (the word aporie is common in learned Dutch)
    Quite, «απορία» is the total poverty.
    - aneparcia : could there be a link with the French épargner (save) ? I can't find it, but ...
    I really do not know. Babibiotis gives «επάρκεια» (e'parcia) and its opposite, «ανεπάρκεια» (ane'parcia) as cognates to Lat. arx, Eng./Fr. exercise.
    - do some of the words in the scarcity refer to lack in a very general sense (I suppose they all do, but scarcity is more general, it seems to me)
    That would be «έλλειψη», it's the broader term.
    - Αφθονία is the perfect word indeed
    (Have you seen Έλλειψη or Αφθονία turn up in recent news reports? I guess not, but just asking)
    Yes, we have unfortunately witnessed «έλλειψη» of solidarity and «αφθονία» of resentment from many of our European colleagues
     

    ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    Thanks! So:
    - Lat. arx is different from parcere, which, I believe, means 'to save'. So no link, I think.
    - lack: so only έλλειψη refers to lack really, but I guess you have a very specific term for 'lack' as well...
    - current affairs: it is interesting here that you refer to the concrete meaning (almost like lack/shortage & excess/ surplus [both in a negative sense]); I had been thinking of something different, of the philosophical view, I'd say, referring to plenitude (perception of fullness) vs. feeling/ perception of shortage ('not enough', often not corresponding to an objective lack))
     
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    ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    Great, thanks, I am not sure but could escassez be most general, more like wealth, which can be broader than material wealth? Or do you have something like penuria? --- Other question: would you say afluência and abundância are more figurative, or broader than fartura and riqueza?
     

    sakvaka

    Senior Member
    Finnish:

    pula, puute (shortage, lack, scarcity)

    Of these two, the former is usually used in compounds and the latter with genitive case or independently.

    Kärsin akuutista rahan puutteesta / rahapulasta.I'm suffering from an acute shortage of money.
    Eräitä maita uhkaa työvoimapula, kun väestö ikääntyy. Some countries are threatened by labour shortage as their population gets older.
    Afrikan sarven alueella miljoonat perheet elävät puutteessa ja hädässä. In the region of the Horn of Africa, millions of families live in scarcity and distress.

    yltäkylläisyys (adverb: yllin kyllin)

    Länsimainen ihminen elää yltäkylläisyydessä (or: yltäkylläisesti)
    . Western people live off the fat of the land.
    Meillä on yllin kyllin pohjavettä, mutta Israelissa sen vuoksi käydään sotia. We are lousy with groundwater but in Israel, they battle for it.
     

    ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    I'd like to ask as well if there is some very general word for 'lack'. It is difficult to explain, but scarcity seems to imply that there will never be enough (it can be concrete, but I am looking for a very abstract idea of not/ never having enough). Think of rich people having so much but experiencing scarcity, needing more. But maybe there isn't in Finnish.

    yltäkylläisyys might very well be the word. I also found ylenpalttisuus, something like 'wealth', I guess.
     

    sakvaka

    Senior Member
    Oh, yes, ylenpalttinen, which Wiktionary defines as 'lavish (superabundant; excessive)'. It has a few main uses: with nouns derived from verbs (ylenpalttinen hikoilu, haukottelu, syöminen - sweating, yawning, eating), with the words määrä (amount) and runsaus (plentiness), and in the exclamation Tämä on aivan ylenpalttista! (This is abundantly luxurious!). However, in the first meaning, it is a bit rare. We are inclined to say liiallinen (excessive) hikoilu, haukottelu.
     

    ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    ON the other hand that is not the intended meaning, I am afraid: just abundance would do. Abundance is like magic: it is like feeling peace in little, relatively little, not in lavish wealth. But in the ordinary meaning, yes, it could be superabundance...
     

    rusita preciosa

    Modus forendi
    Russian (Moscow)
    Russian:
    Affluence:
    достаток /dostatok/ - lit. "sufficient-ness"
    благополучие /blagopolutchie/ - lit. "well-receive-ness" (well-being, prosperity)
    богатство /bogatstvo/- lit. richness
    Scarcity:
    недостаток /nedostatok/ - lit. opposite of достаток, "not-sufficient-ness"
    дефицит /defitsit/ - lit. deficit
    нехватка /nekhvatka/ - lit. "not-enough-ness"
     

    Nizo

    Senior Member
    I think the best words in Esperanto for these concepts are manko (scarcity) and riĉeco (affluence). There might be other options as well, but these seem to me to convey the correct sense.
     
    - lack: so only έλλειψη refers to lack really, but I guess you have a very specific term for 'lack' as well...
    Yes we do have a separate word for lack/lacking:
    «Απουσία» (apu'sia, f.). Classical feminine noun «ἀπουσία» (ā'pousīă)--> absence, waste, lack; compound, prefix and preposition «ἀπὸ» (ā'pŏ)--> from, asunder, finishing, completing, back again (PIE base *apo-, off, away) + Classical feminine noun «οὐσία» (ou'sīă, u'sia in Modern Greek)--> substance, essence (PIE base *es-, to be).
    - current affairs: it is interesting here that you refer to the concrete meaning (almost like lack/shortage & excess/ surplus [both in a negative sense]); I had been thinking of something different, of the philosophical view, I'd say, referring to plenitude (perception of fullness) vs. feeling/ perception of shortage ('not enough', often not corresponding to an objective lack))
    That would be «πληρότητα» (pli'rotita, f.); Classical feminine noun «πληρότης» (plē'rŏtēs)--> fullness. A derivation of the verb «πληρόω/πληρῶ» (plē'rŏō [uncontracted]/plē'rō [contracted])--> to fill full, complete (in Modern Greek the verb is «πληρώνω», pli'rono which means to fill full but also to pay; probably because when you pay someone you fill full his/her pockets :) ). PIE base *plā-, to fill.
    Its opposite is «κενότητα» (ce'notita, f.); Classical feminine noun «κενότης» (kĕ'nŏtēs)--> emptyness. PIE base *ḱen-, empty, null
     

    ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    The funny thing is that luxury, which we might consider a synonym of abundance or affluence, is considered a vice, no, a deadly sin, in Christianity, luxuria (self-indulgence sexual desire, so it seems, but simply also going too far in one's enjoyment of worldly goods) and refers to dislocation, possibly as a possible result of luctari, wrestling.
     
    The funny thing is that luxury, which we might consider a synonym of abundance or affluence, is considered a vice, no, a deadly sin, in Christianity, luxuria (self-indulgence sexual desire, so it seems, but simply also going too far in one's enjoyment of worldly goods) and refers to dislocation, possibly as a possible result of luctari, wrestling.
    In Modern Greek, luxury is «πολυτέλεια» /poli'telia/ an ancient feminine noun («πολυτέλεια», pŏlŭ'tĕleiă) with original meaning costliness, great expense; compound, adv. «πολὺ» (pŏ'lŭ)--> much (PIE base *pel- (1)/*plā-, to pour) + neuter noun «τέλος» ('tĕlŏs)--> due, expenditure (we've discussed about «τέλος» here & here). Slowly, in Classical times, the concept of extravagnce turned synonymous with «πολυτέλεια». Thus, Xenophon in his Memorabilia writes:
    Xenophon said:
    -Ἑοικας, ὦ Ἀντιφῶν, τὴν εὐδαιμονίαν οἰομένῳ τρυφὴν καὶ πολυτέλειαν εἶναι·
    -You, Antiphon, would seem to suggest that happiness consists of luxury and extravagance; (Book 1:6:5)
    In the ancient language, the feminine noun «τρυφή» (trū'pʰē) defined the luxurious living too (PIE base *dʰreu-, to drop) which in the modern language has become «τρυφηλότητα» /trifi'lotita/ and describes the lack of strength of character, the softness, spiritless.
    But I'm afraid I've strayed away from the original topic.
     

    ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    In the end you'll be able to rewrite the Greek dictionary from a global perspective - and include some literary excursions (not digressions !) ;-)

    'τέλος" seems to have numerous meanings, for example. The term 'πολυτέλεια' seems to be quite negative. For a sec I thought it meant 'having too many objectives in mind'. How could you then describe 'τρυφηλότητα' literally ? Dropping one's objectives ? -- I sincerely believe that these contributions do not stray away from the original term 'abundance': we're exploring a side aspect of it.
     

    ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    Could you tell us more about the origin, the root, fo the first two words? I tried Google Translate, and found something like 'with us', 'kédes' as growth, 'hiá' lack, etc. Do they make sense ?
     

    francisgranada

    Senior Member
    Hungarian
    nélkül - without
    nélkülözni - to be without something, to suffer from the absence/lack, i.e. of the things that are necessary/indispensable
    nélkülözés - noun from the preceding verb

    hiány - lack, missing ...
    hiányos - insufficient ...

    bő - wide, loose, broad, abundant ...
    bőség - abundance, affluence
    bővelkedni - to be in the situation/state of abundance, affluence ...
    bővelkedés- noun from the preceding verb
     

    ger4

    Senior Member
    German
    These German terms might fit in here:
    - Überfluss - (lit. 'over_flood') - 'affluence', 'abundance'
    - Wohlstand - (lit. 'well_stand') - 'prosperity'
    - Mangel - (lit. 'lack') - 'scarcity'
     

    810senior

    Senior Member
    Japanese
    Japanese:
    Scarcity:欠乏ketsubou (欠ketsu:lack, 乏bou:meager; lit. lacking and meager)
    Affluence:豊富houfu (豊hou:abundant 富fu:wealth lit. abundant in wealth)
     
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