Simple nominal sentence

Discussion in 'العربية (Arabic)' started by Ali.h, Feb 15, 2010.

  1. Ali.h Banned

    In Arabic is there a different name for a nominal sentence and a simple nominal sentence?

    Example of a nominal sentence:

    الْشَمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ فِيْ السَّمَاءِ

    Example of a simple nominal sentence:

    اَلْقَلَمُ رَخِيصٌ

    Notice that the simple nominal sentence has only got two nouns, but a nominal sentence contains more than just two nouns, such as a conjunction and preposition.
  2. Abu Rashid

    Abu Rashid Senior Member

    Melbourne, Australia
    Australian English
    I think you'll find they're both just called jumlah ismiyyah (noun sentence) in Arabic. The first one just has more elaborate mubtada and khabr than the second.
  3. Faylasoof Senior Member

    Plato's Republic
    English (UK) & Urdu (Luckhnow), Hindi
    In Arabic grammatical terminology, sentences are of two type:

    jumlah ismiyyah = nominal sentence
    jumlah fe3liyyah = verbal sentence.

    Here you can read more.
  4. Abu Rashid

    Abu Rashid Senior Member

    Melbourne, Australia
    Australian English
    That website seems to have some really wrong information on that specific page, like the following:

    As far as I'm aware such a sentence would always be nominal, because the first word is a noun.
  5. Faylasoof Senior Member

    Plato's Republic
    English (UK) & Urdu (Luckhnow), Hindi
    Well, I haven't looked at every item here but the sentence you cite is jumlah fe3liyyah (verbal sentence). A jumlah ‘ísmiyyah (nominal sentence) is “verbless”, while this one, أحب الزُمُرُّدَ, has a verb, viz. أحب / حب. So it is, as they say, a verbal sentence.
  6. Abu Rashid

    Abu Rashid Senior Member

    Melbourne, Australia
    Australian English
    Perhaps we should wait for someone else to confirm, but in every book I've ever studied from the stipulation for what kind of sentence it is, is based on what the first word is, not the presence of a verb or absence of it.
  7. Josh_ Senior Member

    the phrontistery
    U.S., English
    Actually the page is correct as far as I can tell. It defines the sentences thus:

    Not the best worded explanation, in my opinion, but I'm not sure I could do better. What I think they mean is that when the subject is مبتدأ, and thus not the subject of a verb, which is called a فاعل, it is a جملة اسمية, but if the subject is the فاعل of a verb, it is a جملة فعلية. I'm going to have to think about how to explain the difference between these two sentences in English.

    Generally speaking, yes, a nominal sentence will start with a noun, whereas a verbal sentence will start with a verb, but it is not as simple as just that (which is why that is not the best explanation). Whether a noun or a verb comes first is not the only piece of information we need. The other piece of information we need -- which is critical in my opinion -- is the i3raab endings. That will help us to determine if it is verbal or nominal sentence.

    As I alluded to above, that is not completely accurate. A nominal sentence is not necessarily verbless. There could be a verbal sentence embedded in a nominal sentence that acts as the nominal sentence's خبر.

    Ok, now to the sentence in question:

    الزُمُرُّدَ أحب

    The first word is a noun, but note the i3raab ending on the word الزُمُرُّدَ. It has a fatHa on it which means it is in the accusative case (منصوب), thus indicating that it is the object (المفعول به) of the verb "أحب."

    The confusion arises due to the fact that the words are not in the normal order. We would most often expext it to be أحب الزُمُرُّدَ. In this case it is clear the the subject is ضمير مستتر: أنا and the مفعول به is الزُمُرُّدَ.

    If it were a nominal sentence we would need a pronominal suffix referring back to the subject. So it would be:

    الزمردُ أحبُه

    Note that in this case الزمردُ has a Damma on the end of it indicating that it is مرفوع (nominative). This sentence would be analyzed as a جملة اسمية and the breakdown is:

    الزمردُ: مبتدأ مرفوع بالضمة.ا
    أحبُه: فعل مضارع للمعلوم مرفوع، وفاعله ضمير مستتر: أنا. والهاء ضمير في محل نصب مفعول به. وجملة أحبه في محل رفع خبر.ا

    So الزمردُ is the مبتدأ of this جملة اسمية, and أحبُه is the خبر, which also happens to be a complete جملة فعلية in its own right (with a self-contained meaning -- جملة مفيدة), that is merely embedded within the جملة اسمية.

    The sentence "الزُمُرُّدَ أحب," which a I said would normally be ordered "أحبالزُمُرُّدَ," can only be analyzed as:

    أحب: فعل مضارع للمعلوم مرفوع بالضمة، وفاعله ضمير مستتر: أنا.ا
    الزُمُرُّدَ: مفعول به منصوب بالفتحة.ا

    Thus it is a جملة فعلية.
    Last edited: Feb 16, 2010
  8. Faylasoof Senior Member

    Plato's Republic
    English (UK) & Urdu (Luckhnow), Hindi

    Yes, you can have a verbal clause within a nominal sentence. I thought to leave this point out for the sake of simplicity. The sentence cited was a simple verbal sentence. Perhaps I should have added the point of a verbal clause anyway.

    As to word order, I agree it can be confusing but as you note, the cited sentence is fully vocalised and it is clear what is the object of the verb. The subject is clear here as well. Also, your example of the corresponding nominal sentence shows how different the sentence becomes.

    As a general point for those who may not know, in a verbal sentence the position of the verb can vary. Normally in a verbal sentence the verb is first but it can give way to an adverb or an adverbial phrase.

    Both, the verbal sentence and the nominal are discussed here.

  9. Josh_ Senior Member

    the phrontistery
    U.S., English
    Aah, I see. It is true these things can get pretty complex. I thought about including the Arabic definitions for verbal and nominal sentences in case it would help, but then I thought that if I did that a few other words would need explaining, so it might just lead to more confusion than is necessary.

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