Slovak: vystúpiť

Concise

Senior Member
Hungarian
For me the meaning of the word “nastúpiť” is clear.

The word “vystúpiť” seems to clear, too, the main meaning is to get out (of) or get off, but it can mean also to climb.

My printed Slovak-Hungarian dictionary says it can also mean “nastúpiť”, and the example is “vystúpiť na vlak”. It is more than strange due to the prefix vy-.

The online Slovak dic’s confirms it at Slovenské slovníky

I guess this meaning must come from the other meaning , to climb or to step up.

But is there any general rule (or group of verbs) when a verb starting with the prefix vy- can be used to express other directions, not just out, off, away? I mean not in a figurative sense, but to express a real movement upwards, downwards, or inwards?

Or vystúpiť is not an interesting exemption and the whole phenomenon can be explained using some sort of etymology?
 
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  • numerator

    Senior Member
    Hungarian, Slovak
    I'm not sure I completely understand your question, but the two main spatial meanings of the prefix vy-/vý- are 1) movement outwards and 2) movement upwards. The prefix is very productive in both meanings, and yes, in situations where up=in and down=out, the same verb can de facto mean two opposite processes:
    vyniesť chladničku na piate poschodie = to carry it up
    vyniesť chladničku von na ulicu = to carry it out

    Regarding vystúpiť na vlak: I've never heard this usage and it would probably confuse me for a moment. I guess it is quite justified in cases when boarding a train involves climbing up steep steps... but I've only heard nastúpiť (or nasadnúť) na vlak.

    Movement down is not something to use the prefix vy-/vý- for (except when down=out), and movement inwards definitely not.
    But the prefix can have a bunch of other meanings; I haven't been able to quickly find a good summary for Slovak, but here's one for Czech:
    Heslář - SlovnÃk afixů
     

    Concise

    Senior Member
    Hungarian
    “The prefix is very productive in both meanings, and yes, in situations where up=in and down=out, the same verb can de facto mean two opposite processes:”

    That is the point, so vystúpiť as moving up/in is not a standalone case.
     

    numerator

    Senior Member
    Hungarian, Slovak
    Definitely not a standalone case! There's vyjsť, vyliezť, vyskočiť, vyniesť, vytiahnuť, vytlačiť, vyhodiť ... All of these can mean moving out or up.

    But if you want to specifically express moving in, then you would of course use vojsť, vliezť etc. with the prefix v-.
     

    Concise

    Senior Member
    Hungarian
    Regarding vystúpiť na vlak: I've never heard this usage and it would probably confuse me for a moment. I guess it is quite justified in cases when boarding a train involves climbing up steep steps..
    I forgot to confirm that indeed the example I found on the link I provided in my OP suggested the same:

    “2. vstúpiť do dopravného prostriedku • vysadnúť • nasadnúť • nastúpiť: vystúpili, vysadli na vlak aj s batožinou; nasadnúť, nastúpiť do auta • hovor. expr. nalodiť sa: nalodili sa do električky aj s kočíkom”

    So with (presumably heavy) luggages, therefore not so easily and mabye steep steps, too.
     
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