Slovene: šibak do zmeren južni do jugozahodni veter


Senior Member
How do you classify both "do", as particles, conjunctions? SSKJ doesn't list conjunction for this word, but it also doesn't list any example where "do" is used as range and with nominative.

Here are few translations. Other Slavic languages that I checked use conjunctive "and". Germanic and Romance languages often use preposition and nouns anyway don't distinguish cases much in such languages.

ru::слабый и умеренный южный и юго-западный ветер
pl::wiatr słaby i umiarkowany, południowo-wschodni i południowy
hr::slab i umjeren južni i jugozapadni vjetar
en::weak to moderate south to south-west wind
it::venti da deboli a moderati da sud o sudovest (or: vento debole o moderato)
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  • Hachi25

    This is possible in some other Slavic languages as well, especially regarding wind strenght/speed:
    Serbo-Croatian: Vjetar slab do umjeren sjeveroistočni i sjeverni
    Bulgarian: Предимно слънчева сряда, ще духа слаб до умерен вятър
    Macedonian: Времето во Македонија денеска ќе биде претежно сончево со слаб до умерен ветер
    Russian: Ветер северо-западный слабый до умеренный

    The meaning is clear, do indicates a span in which something could happen. In this case the wind might be everything from weak to moderate. As for the part of speech, this is a good question. I don't think this usage has ever been recorded in any of our dictionaries, which led me to believe it might actually be a preposition in question. I know that there are no prepositions used with nominative, but it might have been genitive at some point in time, at least according the East Slavic sources:
    Belarusian: Вецер паўночны слабы да ўмеранага, па паўднёвым усходзе моцны парывісты.
    Ukrainian: Вітер спостерігався слабкий до помірного, змінних напрямків.
    Russian again, this time with more confirmations: Ветер северо-восточный слабый до умеренного, вечером умеренный до сильного.

    If that is the case, then do, diachronically speaking, would definitely be a preposition. However, as there are no prepositions used with the nominative case, it can't be classified as a preposition in contemporary Serbo-Croatian or Slovenian. It might be a conjunction or a particle; and I believe Croatian lingustics would classify do as a particle here. Conjunctions connect, but they don't usually describe spans like this. Particles don't either, but their range of meanings tends to be wider.

    This is, of course, just my theory which may or may not be correct. And I am not familiar enough with the West Slavic branch of languages (hence the lack of examples from there), so any West Slavic input would be very much appreciated.


    Senior Member
    Slovenian, Slovenia
    I would say, that it is conjunction in this case. And additionally, it is possible that it is particle in examples like "Prišlo bo do 10 ljudi."
    But part of speech classifications are arbitrary to some degree. I think that in SSKJ they didn't want to create to many new parts of speech for words, that are mostly used in one role.
    On the other hand, I work a lot in the area of automatic syntax analysis and many times I find that I need to add some very exotic roles for words.


    Senior Member
    Thanks for examples in the other languages.

    The grammar clasification then depends on the needs: teaching natives, teaching foreigners, comparing languages, programming etc