Slovenian: Origin of "-r" Suffix

123xyz

Senior Member
Macedonian
Could someone enlighten me as to "-r" suffix found in Slovenian pronouns and interrogative words such as "kar", "kdor", "kolikor", "nikogar", "nikomer" vsakogar", "ničesar", etc. ? I am interested in both its current function, i.e. what meaning it adds when appended, as well as it's original meaning in the past (if it was different, e.g. because the "-r" was an independent morpheme).

Thank you in advance
 
  • ahvalj

    Senior Member
    This -r is a result of the change -že>-r, so we meet here the well known Slavic emphatic particle.

    Nahtigal · 1952 · Slovanski jeziki writes that the oldest example is found in Freising manuscripts in form of tere (II, 32, 110; modern ter), though otherwise the maniscripts preserve the older forms: eže, ježe, nikakože (modern nikakor), nikoliježe, možem (modern moremo), možete, bože. To a lesser extent, this is attested in other southern languages as well. Serbo-Croatian: Ban Kulin's deed (1189) — kire, kakore, kolikore; modern jer; Bulgarian: дори < даже и, cp. Bulgarian дори до, Serbo-Croatian Čakavian (15–17th centuries) dari do, dori do, Slovene dialectal dar do, but Freising manuscripts dožda (II, 61), daže (III, 40). Occasionally, this shift is found in Slovak and in Czech Moravian dialects: Slovak neborák (Slovene uboren, boren) vs. Czech nebožák.
     

    123xyz

    Senior Member
    Macedonian
    This -r is a result of the change -že>-r, so we meet here the well known Slavic emphatic particle.

    That makes sense. I suspected as much myself, but I wasn't sure. Thank you for the verification.
    Also, thank you for the additional information - I wouldn't have ever thought that Macedonian "дури" and Russian "даже" are actually the same word.
     
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