There can absolutely be "small issues". There can also be "small details" and "small problems".
As mentioned above, "small talk" means to discuss things of little importance. It's mostly just talking for the sake of talking. Often, we 'engage in small talk' or 'make small talk' with acquaintances and sometimes even strangers.
If you and a friend are thoroughly enjoying eachother's company by just talking about this, that and the other, there are several expressions you can use. You can say "Jim and I spent the afternoon shooting the breeze" or "I had a nice time chatting with Jim today".