some problems of Latvian:)

kvajak

Member
Dialekt von Chaozhou, Chaozhou, Kanton, China
1. The formation of the diminutives in Latvian is that an infix is put between the stem of a word and the ending. And the
diminutive of an a-stem masculine noun is formed by put -iņ- between that mentioned above, and after that, the original
singular nominative ending -s should be changed to -š. So, I just wonder is that a common grammar rule, or is that changed
only when in such a situation (I mean, are all -s's changed to -š, or just changed here?)

2. The diminutives of masculine u-stem and feminine i-stem are instead put an infix -tiņ-, and at the same time the singular
nominative ending changes to the ending of u-stem and i-stem of the same genders, that is, -š and -a. I want to know that,
only the singular nominative ending is changed here, or should other cases' ending also be changed?

3. Some diminutives are formed irregularly, i.e. nakts --> naksniņa, uzacs --> uzacīte and so on, but those are only the
nominatives, what are their other cases then?

4. How is the comparative and the superlative of the Latvian adjective and adverb formed?

Everybody, I am new here. and hope can know you all, and make friends. I am waiting for your answers, thank you:)
 
  • karuna

    Senior Member
    Latvian, Latvia
    kvajak said:
    1. The formation of the diminutives in Latvian is that an infix is put between the stem of a word and the ending. And the
    diminutive of an a-stem masculine noun is formed by put -iņ- between that mentioned above, and after that, the original
    singular nominative ending -s should be changed to -š. So, I just wonder is that a common grammar rule, or is that changed
    only when in such a situation (I mean, are all -s's changed to -š, or just changed here?)
    I don't really understand why the 1st declension nouns are called a-stem masculine nouns? I have never learned such gramatical categories at school. But I can tell that this diminutive suffix is always -iņš. And declined as 1st declension nouns ending with š.

    2. The diminutives of masculine u-stem and feminine i-stem are instead put an infix -tiņ-, and at the same time the singular
    nominative ending changes to the ending of u-stem and i-stem of the same genders, that is, -š and -a. I want to know that,
    only the singular nominative ending is changed here, or should other cases' ending also be changed?
    They change declension to 1st (masculine nouns ending with š) and 4th (feminine nouns ending with a) declension respectively. Thus zivtiņa (nominative) – zivtiņas (nom. plural) - zivtiņu (gen.) etc.

    3. Some diminutives are formed irregularly, i.e. nakts --> naksniņa, uzacs --> uzacīte and so on, but those are only the nominatives, what are their other cases then?
    See above. For grammar purposes diminutives are independent words, they retain the gender though.

    4. How is the comparative and the superlative of the Latvian adjective and adverb formed?
    For adjective comparative is formed with suffix -āk-. And superlative either with prefix vis- plus suffix -āk- plus definite ending, or with a word pats/pati plus suffix -āk- plus definite ending. ātrs – ātrāks - visātrākais or pats ātrākais. mīļa - mīļāka - vismīļākā or pati mīļākā.

    The same for adverbs except that there are no endings. ātri – ātrāk - visātrāk (only one form).

    Everybody, I am new here. and hope can know you all, and make friends. I am waiting for your answers, thank you:)
    You are welcome. I am also rather new here.
     

    kvajak

    Member
    Dialekt von Chaozhou, Chaozhou, Kanton, China
    Oh, thank you very much, Karuna. I hope you can be on the road of my learning Latvian. I tried to find some native speaker of Latvian but failed, now I meet you here, it's great! Thank you once more:)
     
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