Special suru verbs

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datenshi

New Member
English
Can anyone tell me what the correct negative, potential, passive, volitional, imperative and causative forms of the following 10 special suru verbs are?

愛する
恋する
訳する
欲する
察する
有する
要する
保する
損する
適する

Using various online verb conjugation tools (wiktionary, WWWJDIC, verbix, ...) gives me mixed results, and I'm not sure which ones are correct. The conjugations should follow a pattern like for ichidan and godan verbs, but I don't think all special suru verbs follow the same pattern...

Hope I'm not asking too much, and thank you!
 
  • Flaminius

    coclea mod
    日本語 / japāniski / יפנית
    CitationNegativeCausativePassivePotentialVolitionalImperative
    愛するaisanaiaisaseruaisareruaiseruaisōaise
    恋するNANANANAkoishiyō?koise-(yo)
    訳するyakusanaiyakusaseruyakusareruyakuseruyakusōyakuse
    欲するhosshinaihossaseruhossareruNAhosshiyōhosse-(yo)
    察するsasshinaisassaseru?sassareru?sasserusasshiyōsasse-(yo), sasshiro
    有するyūshinai, yūsanaiyūsaseruyūsareruNAyūshiyōyūse-(yo)
    要するyōshinaiyōsaseruyōsareruNAyōshiyō (inferential)yōse?
    損ずるsonjinai, sonzenaisonjisaserusonzerareruNAsonjiyōsonjiyo, sonzeyo
    適するtekisanai, tekishinaiNANANANANA

    This is a big table so I may be making more than a few mistakes. Please, oh please help me improve it.

    Lacking paradigms are either semantically impossible, practically non-existent, suppleted with the equivalent forms of more regular verbs. Some existing forms are occasional or rarely used.
     

    Flaminius

    coclea mod
    日本語 / japāniski / יפנית
    CitationNegativeCausativePassivePotentialVolitionalImperative
    損する
    sonshinai
    sonsaseru
    son-o sareru
    NA
    sonshiyō
    sonshiro

    I replaced 損する (to lose as in negotiation, trade; generally do not get enough benefit) with 損ずる (to damage) because the latter is not a compound verb in my view but a verb phrase. As you can see in the passive rubric, the expressions (most of them) sound much more natural with -o suffixed to the noun son.
     

    datenshi

    New Member
    English
    Hi again!

    I'm wondering which volitional and imperative forms sound better (or in other words, are correct) with short vowel special suru verbs such as:

    科する (かする) ->
    volitional: かそう or かしよう
    imperative: かせ or かしろ/かせよ

    資する (しする) ->
    volitional: しそう or ししよう
    imperative: しせ or ししろ/しせよ

    擬する (ぎする) ->
    volitional: ぎそう or ぎしよう
    imperative: ぎせ or ぎしろ/ぎせよ

    And what about the conditional, is it ~せば or ~すれば?

    Because "課せば" gives 58,100 results in Google, "課すれば" 5,920, but "資せば" gives 3,650 and "資すれば" 10,500.

    Thanks!
     
    Last edited:

    The Mad King

    Member
    English
    Citation
    NegativeCausativePassivePotentialVolitionalImperative
    愛するaisanaiaisaseruaiseruaisareruaisōaise
    Surely the passive and the potential are the other way around, right?

    Can we add 罰する to the table? The passive always confuses me.

    Also, why did you use romaji... It's so hideous... My poor eyes...
     

    datenshi

    New Member
    English
    Hi again!

    I'm wondering which volitional and imperative forms sound better (or in other words, are correct) with short vowel special suru verbs such as:

    科する (かする) ->
    volitional: かそう or かしよう
    imperative: かせ or かしろ/かせよ

    資する (しする) ->
    volitional: しそう or ししよう
    imperative: しせ or ししろ/しせよ

    擬する (ぎする) ->
    volitional: ぎそう or ぎしよう
    imperative: ぎせ or ぎしろ/ぎせよ

    And what about the conditional, is it ~せば or ~すれば?

    Because "課せば" gives 58,100 results in Google, "課すれば" 5,920, but "資せば" gives 3,650 and "資すれば" 10,500.

    Thanks!
    To answer my own question, it seems ~そう for volitional and ~せよ for imperative are more common. For conditional, ~せば, but I'm not sure why it's not so for 資する or for example 比する. This seems random to me.
     
    Last edited:
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