star

mkh

Banned
Iran, Farsi
#56
Per. ستاره (setareh)
Per. اختر (akhtar) {اپاختر (ap-akhtar) = planet}
َAr. نجم (najm)
Ar. کوکب (kawkab)
any language : www(dot)websters-online-dictionary.org/definition/star
 
Maltese and Russian
#58
Maltese kawkba is probably an Arabic loanword.
I wonder where you got that one – Maltese kawkba means “mahogany”! :eek:

If you mean Arabic loanword in Maltese’, I don't understand - Maltese is basically ‘Arabic’ (or Semitic’, as the Maltese themselves like to call their language ;)). But if you mean a loan word in Arabic’, I concur with you. I’d suggest Hausa, but this is only a cultural guess. :eek: Anyway, we shouldn't loose our thread!

“Star” in Maltese is stilla ;) – see my posting #26 (last sentence).
:) :)
 
#60
Arabic:
(نجم) Najm = Star
(كوكب) Kawkab = Planet

If you are going to use the word "star" to describe a female as in "movie star" then use "Najma" (f).
 

apmoy70

Senior Member
Greek
#64
Greek:

αστέρι..
...which is the colloquial name for star, from the Byz. Gr. neuter diminutive «ἀστέρι(ο)ν» astéri(o)n of the Classical 3rd declension masc. «ἀστήρ» ăstḗr (nom. sing.), «ἀστέρος» ăstérŏs (gen. sing.), which has also produced the formal MoGr masc. «ἀστέρας» [aˈste.ɾas] (PIE *h₂ster- star cf Skt. तारा (tārā) -the absence of the s- is unexplained- Hitt. ḫasterza, Av. stār-əm, ToA śre/ToB ścirye, Lat. stēlla < *stēr-lā, Proto-Germanic *sternǭ, Arm. աստղ (astł)).
 

Lorenc

Senior Member
Italian
#66
Ukrainian: зоря, зірка, зірниця, (archaic) звізда
I'm wondering about the etymology of зоря, зірка and зірниця, as they seem to be different from the name for 'star' in most other Slavic languages (Russian звезда, etc.).
I guess that зоря is cognate to Russian заря (=dawn, daybreak, aurora; Nom. Pl. зори) and with Polish zorza (same meaning as Rus.). I'm not too sure concerning зірка/зірниця, they may be derivative diminutives of зоря (comp. Russian зорька, dawn, daybreak, aurora), with the о->і mutation typical of Ukrainian; Russian also has the adjective зоркий 'sharp-eyed' but I don't know whether it's etymological related to the other words mentioned.

p.s.
According to Wiktionary зоркий is derived from the verb зреть 'to behold, to gaze, to watch' (there exist also a separate meaning 'to ripen'), which also gave origin to several other words such as зрение 'eyesight, vision', зрачок 'pupil', зеница 'pupil (obsolete)', зенки 'eyes (coll.)'; the same root is present in many Polish words too, such as wzrok 'eyesight', źrenica 'pupil (of the eye); eye (obs.)', ujrzeć 'to see, to behold'. Anyway, I don't know if the root of зреть is also at the origin of Ukrainian зірка/зірниця.
 
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oveka

Senior Member
Ukraine, Ukrainian
#67
Expression examples:
вечірня (вечерова) зоря - evening Star
вечірня зірниця - evening Star
першорядна зоря - Star of the first magnitude
провідна зірка - Guiding star
п’ятикутна зірка - Five pointed star
 

bibax

Senior Member
Czech (Prague)
#68
The Ukrainian зоря/зірка are not related to the Protoslavic verb zьrěti (root zьr-/zer-/zor- > зреть, zříti, zrieť, etc. > зрение, надзор, zrak, zornice, dozor, wzrok, etc.). They are cognate to OCS зарѩ/зорѩ, Rus. заря/зоря, Cz. záře/zoře (= aurora, dawn, shine), etc.

Note: the similar Protoslavic verb meaning to ripen is conjugated differently (in Czech: zříti vs. zráti), but not in Russian (зреть/зреть are perfectly homonymous).

In Czech, besides hvězda (< PSl. *gvězda), we use also a relatively new word stálice (< státi = to stand), it means fixed star (Sirius je stálice), also used figuratively (Madonna je stálice). The starfish is hvězdice (an artificially invented term).

Btw, here is an interesting map.
 
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Lorenc

Senior Member
Italian
#70
The Ukrainian зоря/зірка are not related to the Protoslavic verb zьrěti [...]. They are cognate to OCS зарѩ/зорѩ, Rus. заря/зоря [...]
Btw, here is an interesting map.
Thanks! So зірка/зірниця can be taken to be derived/diminutive forms of зоря ? BTW in the old (1927) Polish etymological dictionary by Brückner the word 'zorza' seems to be lumped together with words (such as dozór supervision, dozorca watchman, nadzór supervision, pozór appearance) which rather clearly derive from the root zьrěti.
The Polish Etymological dictionary by Boryś (2005) (which I didn't have near at hand earlier) seemingly agrees and states explicitly that Polish zorza comes from proto-Slavic zьrěti; furthermore it also says (lemma spojrzeć) (I'll translate from Polish):
QUOTE:
The basic verb zьrěti is related, for example, with Lithuanian žėrėti 'to glow, to shine', old High-German grāo, German grau 'grey', old Irish grían 'sun', from proto-Indoeuropean gher(ə) 'to glow, to shine'
UNQUOTE

This seems to suggest that OCS зарѩ/зорѩ is etymologically related to proto-Slavic zьrěti and both derive from the proto-Indoeuropean root given above.
 

bibax

Senior Member
Czech (Prague)
#71
In Machek's Etymologický slovník jazyka českého the words záře/zoře (OCS зарѩ/зорѩ < *zar-ja) and zříti (OCz. zřieti < *zьr-ě-ti) are listed separately, záře is related to Lith. žėrėti and žėruoti, zříti is related to Lith. žiūrėti. Machek explicitly excluded any connection between them two.

žėrėti = to shine, sparkle, twinkle; to burn;
žėruoti = to shine, glitter, sparkle, twinkle, glare;
vs.
žiūrėti = to look at, e.g. žiūrėti televizorių = to watch television;


The Czech word zornice (= pupil, a black hole that doesn't shine; < zříti, grade zor-) and the Ukrainian word зірниця (= star, a shining object; < зоря) look similar (both have the same suffix), but they are derived from different words, even if we admit an ancient connection between *zarja and *zьrěti, i.e. between to shine/glare and to look/watch.

A hypothetical Czech cognate to Ukrainian зірниця could be *zářice (< zářiti 'to shine', like stálice 'fixed star' < státi 'to stand') or zářivka, however zářivka already has a modern meaning fluorescent lamp/tube.
 
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Lorenc

Senior Member
Italian
#72
In Machek's Etymologický slovník jazyka českého the words záře/zoře (OCS зарѩ/зорѩ < *zar-ja) and zříti (OCz. zřieti < *zьr-ě-ti) are listed separately, záře is related to Lith. žėrėti and žėruoti, zříti is related to Lith. žiūrėti. Machek explicitly excluded any connection between them two.
Thanks! I'll just mention that Wikitionary on the etymology of 'gray' says that it comes from PIE ǵhreh 'to green, to grow' [perhaps a typo and it should be 'to glow'?] and lists as related OCS зьрѭ 'to see', Russian зреть and Lithuanian žeriù 'to shine'. I don't know where the etymological information of Wikitionary ultimately comes from. On the other hand the 'Online etymology dictionary' (I haven't checked its ultimate source) for 'gray' says that it has 'no certain connections outside Germanic.' So the whole situation is unclear. I think it is safe to say that at the proto-Slavic stage (~500 CE) the 'to glow' and 'to see' roots were definitely separate, and with less certainty they were so at the proto Balto-Slavic one (~?1000 BCE).
 
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