-te form: Morphology

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  • Whodunit

    Senior Member
    Deutschland ~ Deutsch/Sächsisch
    If you're planning to ask about more te-forms of several verbs, I advise you to have a look in the JimBreen's dictionary first. Enter the Japanese or English verb (you can also use the rômaji input method) and click on [V] behind the correct translation.

    If a conjugation chart is available, it will be displayed. For matsu (待つ), you get matte (待って) under "Affirmative/Informal" and kaite (描いて) for kaku (描く). :)
     

    cheshire

    Senior Member
    Japanese
    I would advise you, if you should really want to feel in your deep the depth of Japanese language:p , I advise you to first apply the regular rule.

    kaku 書く → kak-ite かきて
    matsu 待つ → mats-ite まつぃて (まちて)
    tatsu 立つ → tats-ite たつぃて (たちて)
    nomu 飲む → nom-ite のみて
    iku 行く → ik-ite いきて

    As you probably know, the right side is achieved by picking up the root of the verb, adding -ite. These examples are "difficult to pronouce," although they were used in old Japanese (up to Edo or Meiji eras). They are now gone through the process of 音便化 onbinka, facilitation of pronunciation.

    tatsite → tachite (alveolarization--due to the same articulation point between "tsi" and "t")
    ikite → itte (regressive assimilation)
     

    Anatoli

    Senior Member
    Native: русский (Russian), home country: English
    Here's a complete list of consonant changes in the -te form:

    -ku - -ite
    -gu - -ide

    -u - -tte
    -tsu- -tte
    -ru - -tte (except for 一段活用 (ichidan katsuyou) verbs)

    -su - -shite

    -bu - -nde
    -mu - -nde
    -nu - -nde

    ichidan katsuyou:
    -iru, -eru - -ite, -ete

    irregular verbs:
    suru - shite
    kuru - kite
    iku - itte (sounds the same as iu (say), iru (need))

     

    Anatoli

    Senior Member
    Native: русский (Russian), home country: English
    Anatoli, you list is very helpful. :thumbsup:

    Maybe you should also mention the te-form of the negative auxiliary word -nai, which would be -nakute. ;)
    You're welcome :)

    The questions was about verbs. So, I made a list of verbs.

    -nai can be treated as just another -i adjective, all -i adjectives have the middle form as -kute: samukute, yokute, -etc.

    Copula "desu" has the form -de:

    wakakute kirei desu but kirei de wakai desu.
    (若くてきれいです。 but きれい若いです。)
     

    Whodunit

    Senior Member
    Deutschland ~ Deutsch/Sächsisch
    The questions was about verbs. So, I made a list of verbs.
    Well, I consider "masu" and "nai" verbs in Japanese, as they have conjugation patterns like real verbs. Since "masu" worked with your list, I thought you just forgot about mentioning "nai" in the irregular category. ;)

    -nai can be treated as just another -i adjective, all -i adjectives have the middle form as -kute: samukute, yokute, -etc.
    So the -i adjectives have their own category you forgot about in the aforementioned list?

    Copula "desu" has the form -de:
    Very irregular! :)
     

    Anatoli

    Senior Member
    Native: русский (Russian), home country: English
    If you insist that I forgot :)

    All depends how you approach it. Some textbooks teach -te forms for verbs only (meaning u/ru verbs) using their dictionary form. "-masu" is just a polite ending but -te form can be produced as well.

    Adjectives are another story, since not all verb forms exist for adjectives but you can group them together if you wish. Grammatically "nai" is another adjective, which can also be a verb suffix.

    無い【ない】 (adj) there isn't; doesn't have
     
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