His remarks were offtopic, but the conversation eventually circled back to the main topic.
Thanks for joining this meeting, first I want to circle back on the issues we discussed yesterday (follow up/discuss)
I agree. In AE we would want to "follow up on (or re-open) issues we discussed yesterday". But the sentence with "eventually" is good.
"Circle back" is an uncommon expression. It is a figure of speech, saying "eventually returning to where it started." It usually implies having NO guidance, but getting back to the topic "purely by chance". That is why your second sentence doesn't work.
The original literal meaning was common in horse-riding (in cowboy movies, for example). To "circle back" meant to go back to where you started, but get there using a very different route. You might do that if someone was following you, for example.