the introduction...and enabled images to be made...

Omid9798

Member
Persian
Excuse me, Am I right about the structure of the sentence? (Isn't the underlined "and" redundant?)

Sentence:
the introduction of lighter and simpler equipment, and of new emulsions that coated photographic plates, film, and paper and enabled images to be made at much faster speeds.

(1) : the introduction of lighter and simpler equipment
(2) : [the introduction] of new emulsions that coated photographic plates, film, and paper

the sentence : (1)+(2) enabled images o be made at much faster speeds.

Thanks.
 
  • Omid9798

    Member
    Persian
    If it's supposed to be a complete sentence, the 'and' doesn't belong there.
    If it's supposed to be a complete sentence, the 'and' doesn't belong there.
    Thanks. It's the whole paragraph.

    "The rapid technical development of photography—the introduction of lighter and simpler equipment, and of new emulsions that coated photographic plates, film, and paper and enabled images to be made at much faster speeds—had some unanticipated consequences."
     

    Andygc

    Senior Member
    British English
    A good illustration of the importance of providing a complete sentence. Your and should be that or which. Your analysis of the fragment of the sentence in your first post was incorrect. Lighter and simpler equipment had no effect on the speed of processing photographic images.

    Although leaving it as and is not wrong, it's just potentially confusing.
     

    Omid9798

    Member
    Persian
    A good illustration of the importance of providing a complete sentence. Your and should be that or which. Your analysis of the fragment of the sentence in your first post was incorrect. Lighter and simpler equipment had no effect on the speed of processing photographic images.

    Although leaving it as and is not wrong, it's just potentially confusing.
    Thanks. I still have problem with understanding the structure and therefore the meaning of the sentence. Too much "and" and "commas" always makes me confused.
     

    grassy

    Senior Member
    Polish
    The bold part is not a complete sentence. It's an appositive that specifies what the author means by the rapid development of photography.

    'Enabled' goes with 'new emulsions', I'd say.
     

    Omid9798

    Member
    Persian
    The bold part is not a complete sentence. It's an appositive that specifies what the author means by the rapid development of photography.

    'Enabled' goes with 'new emulsions', I'd say.
    Thanks.


    (1) : the introduction of lighter and simpler equipment
    (2) : [the introduction] of new emulsions that coated photographic plates, film, and paper and enabled images o be made at much faster speeds

    The rapid technical development of photography, including (1) and (2).

    Thanks. It makes sense now.
     

    Andygc

    Senior Member
    British English
    Perhaps you should see it as:

    the introduction of:
    1. lighter and simpler equipment
    2. new emulsions that
    ... a. coated photographic plates, film, and paper
    ... b. enabled images to be made at much faster speeds.

    It could be written with more clarity.
     
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