these structure both language, which is a ..., and that which is..


Senior Member
Hello,everyone.I meet with the following sentence from a philosophy work:
It is more like the world itself has a grammar and a syntax, a logic by which it operates, and these structure both language, which is a representation of the world, and that which is represented by language.
[Source: 16.3 Kant's Copernican Revolution. Lovers of Wisdom: An Introduction to Philosophy with Integrated Readings by Kolak, Daniel]
I wonder the usage of "which" in the sentence ,the first "which"=language?and the second "which",what it stands for? also for "language",and I wonder after the word "structure" should have "are"? Can you change it into a more easily-understanding sentence?
  • Edinburgher

    Senior Member
    German/English bilingual
    No, you can't replace "structure" with "are". The meaning of the verb "structure" here is something like "they give structure to".
    The first which stands for logic, the second for language.
    The third which is part of "that which", which here means "what".
    Grammar, syntax, and logic give structure to two things:
    (1) language itself, which is a representation of the world,
    (2) whatever it is that language represents, which must be the world.
    They structure both the real thing and its representation.
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