...thinking to include animals as well as plants


This text ia from TOEFL.
Even less fortunate was the extension of this type of thinking to include animals as well as plants. This resulted in the “biome,” a combination of coexisting flora and fauna. Though it is true that many animals are strictly associated with certain plants, it is misleading to speak of a “spruce-moose biome,” for example, because there is no internal cohesion to their association as in an organism.
'as well as' means 'and', right?
  • Uncle Jack

    Senior Member
    British English
    'as well as' means 'and', right?
    Yes, but the focus is always a lot more on the first thing mentioned, and there is often a kind of a sequence. In this case, plants came first, and animals are an addition, and I think this is always the sequence where there is no punctuation: "X as well as Y" means that Y is what we might expect, and X is something extra.