to cover

Discussion in 'All Languages' started by ThomasK, Jan 31, 2013.

  1. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch

    - to cover : dekken, but more often bedekken
    - derivations: dak (roof), deken (blanket), deksel (lid), dekking (like the 'scope' of an insurance -- - zoeken > seek cover), etc.
    - dekken, metaphorically: coverage, guarantee, liability, I think - noden dekken, to meet the needs, ...

    You might be using other words to express that same concept...
  2. apmoy70

    apmoy70 Senior Member

    In Greek:

    «Kαλύπτω» [ka'lipto] --> to conceal, cover (PIE base *ḱel-, to cover; cf. Skt. चाल (cala), roof; Lat. cēlāre, to hide; Proto-Germanic *hul, hole; Old Norse hellir, cavern; Eng. cell, Hell).
    Derivations: «Κάλυψη» ['kalipsi] (fem.) --> lit. covering, coverage, metaph. TV/Radio narration, financial hedge, insurance/guarantee, roof slating, full board accommodation; «αποκάλυψη» [apo'kalipsi] (fem.) & «ανακάλυψη» [ana'kalipsi] (fem.) --> see here; «επικάλυψη» [epi'kalipsi] (fem.) --> coating (i.e. Phosphate conversion coating); «αλληλοεπικάλυψη» [alilo.epi'kalypsi] (fem.) --> overlapping; «κάλυμμα» ['kalima] (neut.) --> cover, lid; «προκάλυμμα» [pro'kalima] (neut.) --> screen (mil.); «επικάλυμμα» [epi'kalima] (neut.) --> cap, covering
  3. mataripis

    mataripis Senior Member

    To cover in Tagalog is "Takipan" from word "Takip" meaning (cover). However, there other Tagalog words that represent this word too. 1.) Balanggot (hat) 2.) sukob ( within the same period- for event) 3.) Saklaw or sakop ( part of/coverage) 4.) Dala ( included/package ) 5.) atip (roof) 6.) kubli/Tago' ( hidden/ concealed).
  4. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Great information as usual. Thanks a lot. Is a cap a hat? Can you also cover for someone?
  5. apmoy70

    apmoy70 Senior Member

    Thanks for correcting me, that would be a cape (I missed the final -e); the synthetic suspended court of an indoor sports arena, or the sofa wrap, are also an «επικάλυμμα» in Greek.
    If it's a cape (or a cloak) yes, an «επικάλυμμα» can also cover someone
  6. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    But also metaphorically? Cover someone while s/he is under attack perhaps ?
  7. apmoy70

    apmoy70 Senior Member

    That would be a «κάλυψη» ['kalipsi] (fem.); I still remember (after 22 years) from my military service (we have mandatory military service here) the three-pronged advice for surviving a potential hostile encounter: «Κάλυψη, απόκρυψη, παραλλαγή» ['kalipsi] (fem.) --> covering (take cover), covering someone, «απόκρυψη» [a'pokripsi] (fem.) --> concealment, «παραλλαγή» [parala'ʝi] (fem.) --> camouflage

    I apologize for my rambling ;)
  8. arielipi Senior Member

    What do you mean by cover? In hebrew it broadens up to many words instead of just one, so which cover do you mean?
  9. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Thanks, Apmoy. As for covering, arielipi: thinking of a blanket covering a person, a house offering cover to a family, [offering shelter, seems like a synonym], maybe a lid covering a pot, a cap covering a bottle, ... You see: those could be the meanings.
  10. AutumnOwl Senior Member

    In Swedish the word betäcka is used when talking about a stallion or bull is mounting/mating a mare or a cow, for example "låta betäcka ett sto" - to mate a mare.

    Täcka - cover, tak - roof, täcke - blanket, a thick stuffed one (a thin woolen blanket is filt), täckning - for example insurance coverage or when talking about an area where there are cell phone coverage. A lid in Swedish is ett lock.
  11. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    I see the parallels in Dutch, but funnily we do not need a prefix to refer to the mounting/mating. I don't think we use it to refer to cell phone coverage (we use geen bereik, 'no reach' literally).

    I thought of 'doek' (textile, napkin, ...) too, but the origin of the word is not clear, so I learn...
  12. arielipi Senior Member

    We use the root k-s-h/y כ-ס-ה\י
    for blanket covering a man we would say smicha mechasa(i have been informed ch for me is actually /x/, correct me if im wrong) שמיכה מכסה
    for a lid we say michse מכסה
  13. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Four years later I notice that there are so many words and concepts referring to this concept of covering. refers to the Proto-Indo-European root (s)teg- and lists lots of words containing that root: detect, stegosaurus, thatch, tile, to name but a few. However, if you look for 'cover' at the same site, you see so many other roots/ stems - like /kalyp(t)/, mentioned by Apmoy above, or -velop- (wrap), like *bhergh- (1) "to hide, protect", etc.

    I think it is a very important "cultural" or "existential" concept, as opposed to un-covered, bare, exposed (= unsafe)...
  14. Dymn Senior Member

    Catalan, Catalonia
    Nobody has mentioned "discover"?
    • All Romance (pt & ca descobrir, es descubrir, fr découvrir, it scoprire, ro descoperi) and English (discover)
    • German (entdecken) and Dutch (ontdekken)
    • Danish (opdage), Norwegian (oppdage) and Swedish (upptäcka)
    • Slavic (pl odkrywać, ru otkryvat', etc.)
    • Greek (anakalýpto)
    I guess everybody calqued Latin, except for Greek.

    "Protect" is also from the same root as "detect" and is found in all Romance and English.

    "Eucalyptus" is a Hellenic word coined in 18th century meaning "well-covered" it seems.

    Many meanings of "cover" in English are also found in Catalan cobrir and Spanish cubrir (a documentary covers a topic, an insurance covers the reparation cost, snow covers the mountain, a company covers an area, a bull covers a cow). Also with "coverage" (mobile phone coverage e.g.).

    Cobertos means "cutlery" (i.e. ca coberts, es cubiertos, fr couverts). I can't understand the metaphor behind it though.

    In Latin I think operīre was complementary to aperīre "to open", they are cognates and share irregular past participle in all Romance languages, in French if it weren't because of added co- they would be the same (aperīre > ouvrir, cooperīre > couvrir).

    Latin cēlāre (> "to conceal") is related to "cell" and "cellar", in Basque gela means "room".
  15. Sardokan1.0

    Sardokan1.0 Senior Member

    Sardu / Italianu
    In Sardinian the verb "to cover" can be translated in many different ways according to the situation

    1) Coperíre, Coberíre, Copérrere Cobérrere (metaphorically) - Latin "Coperire"

    - Example : Cobérrere sa domo = to cover the house = to build the roof

    - the roof is named "Copertura, Cobertura" (Cover)
    - the verb "to Discover" in Sardinian translates as "Discoperíre, Discoberíre, Discopérrere Discobérrere"

    2) Covaccare (to cover something)

    - Example :
    - Covaccare su lettu = to cover the bed
    - Covaccare sa padedda = to cover the pot

    - the pot's cover is named "Covaccu" or "Copertore, Cobertore"

    3) Affianzare, Ammantare, Ammuntare (to wear heavy clotes, or to add a blanket on the bed)

    - Sa die est(e) fritta e mi so dépidu affianzare = The day is cold and I had to cover myself
    - Ista notte haìa frittu in su lettu e mi so ammantadu = Tonight I "had" cold in the bed and I covered myself (with the blanket)

    - the etymology of Ammantare / Ammuntare should be something like Ad Mantare, from the Sardinian "Manta" = blanket

    4) Tudare (to hide under some kind of cover) - Latin "Tutare" (to protect, to defend)

    Example :
    - Mi che so tudadu in su lettu = I covered myself into the bed
    - Su cane si ch'est tudadu sutta 'e sa mesa = The dog hid under the table
    - Su porcabru si ch'est tudadu ind'una matta de rùu = The wild boar hid into a blackberry bush
  16. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    I had mainly focused on the various forms of covering or hiding, not the opposite. That is why "discover" had not been mentioned.

    I just found out that the couvert referred to the envelope used to hide (cover) the cutlery one was taking along.

    Celare is an interesting addition, the root explaining both "hell" and "helmet" if I am not mistaken!
  17. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    @Sardokan1: interesting additions based on Sardinian, thanks!
  18. AutumnOwl Senior Member

    Finnish have peitää for to cover something, and peite/peitto for blanket. Kansi is lid, but also book cover and boat deck.
  19. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    No verb like peitää, kansää (???)? Do you use those four roots in other senses. I mean: /kalypt/ is used in both tree with covered seeds (eucalyptus) and in revelation (apocalyps). So those are very different contexts. Could you imagine anything like that in Finnish?
  20. AutumnOwl Senior Member

    If using kansi = book cover, then there is kansittaa = to cover a book with covers, but I don't know if it can be used for covering other objects.

    (In Finnish a word with an -a- can't have an -ää ending, it has to end with -aa. The word kansaa means something different, it's the singular partitive form of kansa, meaning people, folk, nation, as in Suomen kansa - the people of Finland.)

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