to farm

ThomasK

Senior Member
Belgium, Dutch
We had a very interesting exchanger about farmers/ peasants, but do you have a verb like farming, and if so, what is the exact meaning?

Dutch:
- intrans., without a DO: boeren (goed boeren = to manage (...) the land well, >>> fig.: to make good money)
- trans., with a DO (farming the land): bewerken (cultivate, lit. something like "treating" the land by working on it)
 
  • apmoy70

    Senior Member
    Greek
    Greek:

    To farm: «Καλλιεργώ την γη» [ka.li.erˈɣɔ tin ʝi] --> to cultivate the earth (so the action is expressed with a periphrasis), often a simple «καλλιεργώ» [ka.li.erˈɣɔ] --> to cultivate, suffices.
    «Καλλιεργώ» is a compound: Classical neut. «κάλλος» kắllŏs + neut. «ἔργον» érgon.
     

    Circunflejo

    Senior Member
    Castellano de Castilla
    Spanish:
    Cultivar: To make whatever is necessary to the land and plants/trees/whatever there's seeded on it to get fruits from it.
    Arar (it exists too labrar with the same meaning): to plow.
    Labrar may be used to for farming a land when you rented it to the owner.
     

    ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    Spanish:
    Cultivar: To make whatever is necessary to the land and plants/trees/whatever there's seeded on it to get fruits from it.
    Arar (it exists too labrar with the same meaning): to plow.
    Labrar may be used to for farming a land when you rented it to the owner.
    Interesting to see that every time again we seem working appear: in Dutch (werken), in Greek (/ergo/), in Spanish labrar (also in English)
    I suddenly remember that arare refers to ploughing, but the Dutch ploegen is very specific, it seems to me. Is arar broader than the ploughing itself? (Could you perhaps illustrate that with an example then?)
     

    Penyafort

    Senior Member
    Catalan (Catalonia), Spanish (Spain)
    The Catalan conrear has got a more intricate origin. It supposedly comes from a Vulgar Latin *CORREDARE, a Romance construction parallel to that of the verb arrear, based on a calque from the Gothic garedan 'take care of', from the Germanic reths 'advice, caution, care' (German Rat) and the prefix ga-, correspondent to Latin con-.

    Cultivar, from Latin, is an educated synonym.

    The form llaurar, from Latin LABORARE, is usually more restricted to the act of ploughing.
     

    apmoy70

    Senior Member
    Greek
    But nothing like /georgo/?
    Only in the ancient language I'm afraid (it hasn't survived in MoGr): «γεωργέω/γεωργῶ» gĕōrgéō (uncontracted)/gĕōrgô (contracted) --> to be a husbandman, farmer, to till, plough, cultivate soil < Classical fem. «γῆ» gê + Classical neut. «ἔργον» érgŏn
    Spanish:
    ...
    Arar (it exists too labrar with the same meaning): to plow.
    ...
    The Greek verb is «οργώνω» [ɔrˈɣɔ.nɔ] < Classical denominative verb «ὀργάω/ὀργῶ ŏrgáō (uncontracted)/ŏrgô (contracted) --> to swell with nourishing liquids and juice (of the earth and of fruits); the meaning of ploughing is very young < Classical fem. «ὀργή» ŏrgḗ --> psychical drive, propensity, character, (strong) emotion, passion, wrath (PIE *ue̯rǵ- to swell of juice, strength, anger cf Skt. ऊर्जा (ūrjā), strength, vigour).
     

    ThomasK

    Senior Member
    Belgium, Dutch
    Interesting backgroundd!! The root reminds me of ki energy in Chinese (or Japanese), as in Qi Gong, but I am not sure about how broad the meaning of ki is.

    I ssuppose those words like cultivar/..., labour/... suggest that farming mainly has to do with the soil, from an etymological perspective at least...
     
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    Armas

    Senior Member
    Finnish
    Finnish:

    viljellä "to farm, to cultivate" < vilja "grain, cereal"
    kyntää
    "to plow" < kynsi "(finger/toe)nail", also some kind of a plowshare of a plow type used in Eastern Finland in the Middle Ages
    aurata "to plow" < aura "plow"
     

    Armas

    Senior Member
    Finnish
    As for cattle, we use kasvattaa "to (make) grow", it is used for plants too as you might guess. However the word viljellä is also used for farming fish (and culturing bacteria).
    Thinking again, I'm not sure if viljellä comes from the meaning 'grain', because vilja, an old loan word from and IE language, originally meant abundance (cf. Russian obilie "abundance"). This meaning is still extant in the adverb viljalti "in abundance" and there are expressions like veden vilja "the vilja of water" meaning fish.
     

    nimak

    Senior Member
    Macedonian
    In Macedonian there is a verb:

    одгледува (odgléduva) 3rd p.s. = to cultivate; to raise; to breed;... (children, cows, horses, dogs, tomatoes, potatoes, corn...)

    also:
    обработува [почва / земјиште] (obrabótuva [póčva / zémjište]) 3rd p.s. = to cultivate, lit. something like "treating" the land (soil) by working on it; to process;...

    гледа (gléda) 3rd p.s. = to watch; to see; to raise;...
    работи (ráboti) 3rd p.s. = to work; to till;...
     
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