TO READ => Everybody's concerned!! (Posting in the forum and Resources.)

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Welcome to the Latin Forum!!
Salvete ! Hello! :)
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:arrow: YOUR TITLE. Think carefully about the precise problem you have at hand. Is it a point of grammar, or vocabulary? For the thread title, use the original term or phrase as it appears in your source text, without adding comments to it.
Moderators may find it necessary to change thread titles for better forum organisation. In order to keep consistency of the whole thread, having your question in the main body of your post is essential. The next few words are how-to of question writing.
:arrow: YOUR QUESTION. Context and examples are critical in linguistics. Help us to help you: give us details! The sentences surrounding the word or expression, the type of text, even an image will enable us to give you useful and accurate responses. Those who would like to help you have expressed this eloquently.

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Gratias agimus ! Thanks!
The moderator team
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  • E X C E R P T .. F R O M .. W R ..R U L E S
    I. provides Forums for exchanges about translation, word usage, terminology equivalency and other linguistic topics.
    II. The Forums promote learning and maintain an atmosphere that is serious, academic and collaborative, with a respectful, helpful and cordial tone.
    III. We welcome members who share our goals and philosophy, and agree to act in accord with the rules and guidelines of the Forums.

    4. Put the word or phrase in the title when asking a question (Avoid "translation please", "how do I say this?", "does this word exist?", "I'm new" and similar expressions).

    5. Always provide an example sentence to show the context. Additional comments on the application for technical terms are strongly suggested.​
    8. Please stay within the topic area of the forum you are posting a message in (linguistic topics in Latin).

    16. No web pages or copyrighted or plagiarized content may be inserted into WordReference posts except as indicated below. Minor fair use excerpts from dictionaries such as a definition/translation or two are permitted. Quotes and translations of texts up to 4 sentences are permitted. Links to content elsewhere are acceptable and appropriate, provided such links meet the requirements stated elsewhere in these rules. Always acknowledge the source. All forms of inserted content that do not meet these conditions will be removed without exception.​
    17. Song lyrics may be quoted and translated up to a maximum of 4 lines. Threads and posts with song lyric quotations and translations beyond 4 lines will be removed.

    18. These forums do not provide free schoolwork. If you want help with a school assignment, you are required to do your own work first. Then, and only then, you may post it with a request for help with specific doubts. In the same way, deep proofreading and rewriting of a text are forbidden.

    22. Except as a topic of discussion, chatspeak and SMS style are not acceptable. Members must do their best to write using standard language forms. For more details, take a look at the next post.​
    :idea: Please check the forum rules periodically since they will be updated whenever necessary.
    For a detailed list, please check the :arrow: comprehensive WR Rules (you can access the rules from any WR forum page. Scroll to the page-top and look for the link "Rules").

    Standard language forms are mandatory in WordReference Forums (Rule #11).

    This applies to the Latin Forum too. The Latin Forum is visited by people from many different parts of the world, and posts should be written in such a way that anyone can understand them regardless of his mother tongue. The WR forums are a place for friendly but serious discussions about languages. For these reasons, posters should do their best to observe basic writing conventions. If you are writing in English, this would mean:
    1. Complete spelling as opposed to shortened forms (for you instead of 4u; by the way instead of btw)
    2. Proper capitalisation as opposed to Cummings-like lower-case monotony
    3. Use of punctuation marks (' , . ?) when necessary. These are devices used to clarify the meaning of a sentence where ambiguity could arise.
    Attention please, everyone and especially speakers of Romance languages:

    When you are posting in English, you must capitalise the first letter of the name of a language — e.g., Turkish and not *turkish.

    The rule of thumb here is that English applies the capitalisation rule not only to proper nouns but also to their derivatives. Turkish, the name of a language, is derived from Turkey, the name of a country where Turkish is spoken. Because Turkey is a proper noun, the adjective derived from it, Turkish, should also be capitalised. This applies to all proper nouns:

    Turkey ---> Turkish
    Japan ---> Japanese
    Shakespeare ---> Shakespearean
    Shi'a ---> Shi'ite

    Attention please, those of you who are new or desperate or both:

    We understand that you want your questions answered as quickly as possible, but writing in all caps (i.e. shouting) and making syllables longer should be avoided. "PLEEEESE HELP!!!!!!!!!!" is unlikely to be more effective than "Please help!" just because the former contains many more exclamation points than the latter (for reference, neither should be used as part of a thread title).

    We, the LA moderators, encourage posters to comply with Rule #11 by sending explanatory PM's and editing posts using non-standard language forms. However, it is ultimately up to posters to uphold Rule #11. Because this rule was introduced to make posts easier to read, the ultimate beneficiary is you, the poster.

    Thank you for your understanding. Keep up the happy language quest! :)

    Latin Forum moderators
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    WordReference forum rules require that all questions must be accompanied by reasonable explanation of context and background.

    Latin words and phrases can have many different meanings. Understanding them depends on where, when and how they are used. When you post a question, please include as much background information and context as you can.

    A question with no context may get an answer. If the question is straightforward, it may not be a wrong answer. But the more context you provide, the better the answers will be.

    Where did you see or hear the word or phrase?​
    … A book? … A newspaper? … A broadcast? … A conversation?​
    What was the subject?​
    When was it written?​
    - Recently? – Or how long ago?​
    If you are quoting text, remember WordReference Rule #4 and make sure you acknowledge the source.​

    Some context is essential.

    It is difficult to say how much context is required because it depends on the question. But no one has ever posted a question with too much context. The text coming immediately before and immediately after the word or phrase under discussion - the sentence containing the word or phrase - may be enough. Ideally, please quote two sentences before, and one sentence after (the maximum quoted text allowed by Rule #4).​
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    This is the collection of resources which would help learners understand various aspects of the Latin language. If you want to have Web sites added in the list, please post your suggestions in the resource suggestion thread. In case you find problems with existing items (such as broken links, commercial contents, duplicates etc.), kindly contact Latin Forum moderators via PM (Flaminius, brian and Cagey).

    The following owes much to the contributions by Jazyk, Nun-Translator, judkinsc, Cagey, Anne345, Grüße, HENK, wonderment, Probo, fsabroso and Cintia&Martine among others.

    Dictionaries: - Italian-Latin with an excellent conjugator and declinator - an English-Latin dictionary and conjugator (freeware) - an English-Latin dictionary and conjugator (online version of the above) - Italian-Latin (both directions) - Latin-Swedish - Swedish-Latin

    Pronunciation: - audio files - a brief guide

    Grammar: - a .pdf file in German, comprehensive - an interactive grammar guide - verb conjugator - grammar glossary - verb drills - excellent grammar schemes in Italian (Internet Explorer only) - Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar
    This website is an incomplete work-in-progress. The complete text may be downloaded as a PDF file here: - grammar, in German - grammar, in German - phonetics, phonology, and morphology, in Spanish (available through Google Books)

    Vocabulary: - prepositions, adverbs, conjunctions - vocabulary for Wheelock's Latin - Latin-German ecclesiastical Latin

    Phrase Books: - Latin expressions and terminology and phrases used in Spanish

    Glossary: - Latin vocabulary for computer technology - An interesting glossary of modern words, neologisms not found in Classical Latin. Knowledge of Italian required. - Another interesting glossary. This time lenghty definitions of new concepts had to be resorted to in some cases. French required. - Another glossary whose area of expertise is philosophy, but other areas of human knowledge are also to be found. English. - Neologism glossary. A very large file.

    Web Services: - Compilation of Latin and Greek texts and English translations. Also offers dictionaries. - Vicipaedia is the Latin version of Wikipedia.

    News and Media: - Ephemeris is a Latin world news service. Latin radio news from Finland. Offers audio files and RSS feeds.

    Online courses: - excellent self-correcting exercises based on Wheelock's Latin - self-correcting exercises based on Wheelock's Latin - key to exercises from Wheelock's Latin - excellent practice material (+key) correlated with Wheelock's Latin - guide to Wheelock's Latin - basic - exercises (with solutions) to Teach yourself Latin

    Reading Materials: - a large collection of Latin texts - intermediate reading material - elementary readers - lyrics by Catullus with translations in 32 languages - Latin texts collection, ranging from classic to Christian, Medieval and Neo-Latin authors

    Miscellaneous: - PDF handouts about Latin grammar, vocabulary and readers. - Ludi, locutorium (chat), libri, et multa alia. - Latin chat forums associated with Finnish radio station YLE. - a brief history about Latin, the relationship with Spanish language and some European regions (when, who and why); the phonetic development: alphabet, accents, pronunciation, phonetic rules; extracts of Latin text for translation and analysis [in Spanish]. - stories and proverbs about animals in Latin

    Softwares: - A Firefox add-on to enable easy input of Unicode characters: to enable macron and brevis shortcuts. - Morphological Analyses for Inflected Latin Words - Morphological analyser with La <> En translator. Download available. - à télécharger Collatinus, de lemmatiser un texte latin - à utiliser Collatinus en ligne German interface parsing software.
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