to reinforce radicalism in the revolutionary system and to entrench <it>

alibey71

Senior Member
Türkçe
"Over the preceding months Khomeini had intervened consistently to reinforce radicalism in the revolutionary system and to entrench it."

What is the "it" in this sentence, is it "radicalism" or "the revolutionary system"?

The source: Michael Axworthy's Revolutionary Iran.
 
  • Barque

    Senior Member
    Tamil
    It's radicalism.

    Khomeini had intervened consistently to reinforce radicalism in the revolutionary system and to entrench radicalism (in the revolutionary system).
     

    velisarius

    Senior Member
    British English (Sussex)
    There's no reason why the passage shouldn't mean that Khomeini intervened consistently to reinforce radicalism in the system and to entrench the system. "It" would normally refer to the nearest previous noun phrase, unless it obviously refers to an earlier one. Otherwise, the writer could have written "reinforce and entrench radicalism..." if that was what was meant.

     

    alibey71

    Senior Member
    Türkçe
    There's no reason why the passage shouldn't mean that Khomeini intervened consistently to reinforce radicalism in the system and to entrench the system. "It" would normally refer to the nearest previous noun phrase, unless it obviously refers to an earlier one. Otherwise, the writer could have written "reinforce and entrench radicalism..." if that was what was meant.

    That is a very logical explanation, velisarius, I thought so too, thanks a lot.
     

    much_rice

    Senior Member
    English - American
    I suppose it depends on when this passage is taking place. If it's immediately after the revolution, he could still be entrenching the revolution itself. If it's years later, he's probably entrenching radicalism, because the revolution has already become incontrovertible.
     

    Barque

    Senior Member
    Tamil
    Alibey71, it might help if you gave us a couple of sentences from before this one and the one after it.
     

    alibey71

    Senior Member
    Türkçe
    Alibey71, it might help if you gave us a couple of sentences from before this one and the one after it.
    Of course, Barque.
    "Some have called this convulsion in Iranian politics the Thermidor of the Iranian revolution, thereby com‑ paring it with the coup in July 1794 that ended the radical rule of Robespierre and St‑Just, bringing in a period of reaction and moderation that led to the rule of the Directory in 1795. But this comparison is misleading and to characterize the changes in this way, simply as a replacement of radicalism by reaction and consolidation, is to miss at least some of the point.
    "Over the preceding months Khomeini had intervened consistently to reinforce radicalism in the revolutionary system and to entrench it. Such was the effect of the hokm against Rushdie, and the intended effect of the new Expediency Council. So also was the intention of the ruling in favour of velayat‑e motlaq, and Khomeini’s general drift over this period to favour fiqh‑e puya (interpretation of religious law to favour flexibility) over fiqh‑e sonnati (interpretation that favoured tradition)."
     

    Barque

    Senior Member
    Tamil
    Thank you, Alibey71.

    It doesn't settle the matter with certainty but it does give me the impression that "entrench it" does refer to "entrenching radicalism".

    He refers to the "hokm" against (Salman) Rushdie for instance, which was a radical act. (I assume "hokm" refers to what the West might know as a fatwa, as it's very similar to the Urdu hukm which means "order" or "ruling".) Similarly the reference to his favouring flexibility under religious law over tradition also suggests he was trying to entrench radicalism.
     

    alibey71

    Senior Member
    Türkçe
    Thank you, Alibey71.

    It doesn't settle the matter with certainty but it does give me the impression that "entrench it" does refer to "entrenching radicalism".

    He refers to the "hokm" against (Salman) Rushdie for instance, which was a radical act. (I assume "hokm" refers to what the West might know as a fatwa, as it's very similar to the Urdu hukm which means "order" or "ruling".) Similarly the reference to his favouring flexibility under religious law over tradition also suggests he was trying to entrench radicalism.
    That is a very logical explanation like the one velisarius made, Barque, I'm confused.
     
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