That article is quite thorough, but the most informative part (in my opinion) is the "inconsistencies" section. There are no firm rules, only guidelines, and a lot depends even on the English dialect. Once your Japanese pronunciation and rhythm are good, it's usually pretty easy to naturalize English words and names into Japanese. However, it's always best to see what the established Japanese pronunciation is if there is one.
For a fun game, try and find rules for how Japanese words and names transliterate into English. Take karaoke, for instance. The most consistent rule seems to be to put the accent on the penultimate syllable.