You might ask your doctor "What's the treatment for my illness?" Here you usually mean cure if you are an optimist, although if you are a realist, you mean effective treatment, which will not cure you, but at least make you feel better (lead to an improvement in your condition).
Treatment means the care or nursing you receive, the drugs you are given, the physiotherapy you receive etc. As Copyright says, it will not necessarily lead to a cure. But if you are seriously ill, you are advised to seek treatment from a doctor/at a hospital. If you are lucky, you will have private health insurance to cover the cost of treatment.