I also searched in their database online on how they use this term and I remarked they may consider it as being de woord (de keratitis NOT het keratitis).
So, I believe the best translation should look like: behandeling van neurotrofische keratitis.
Is it possible for -troof to stand alone or should suffix -isch be added? The choice seems to depend on what other element precedes this Greek root. According to Google, that is.
Favoring -troof over -trofisch:
eutrofe [search terms: eutrofe(1), site:.nl(2)]: 6590 hits on Google.
eutrofische [search terms: eutrofische(1), site:.nl(2)]: 79 hits on Google.
Favoring -trofisch over -troof:
atrofe: 235 hits
atrofische: 8460 hits
Although neurotrofe outnumbers neurotrofische, the difference between the two isn't that spectacular. It seems to me that both words can be used without being frowned upon.
(1) As the uninflected forms don't yield a significant number of hits, I chose the inflected forms -trofe and -trofische instead.
(2) Adding site:.nl proved to be necessary in order to prevent foreign words from contaminating the results as much as possible.