Types of ال

mehrilo

Senior Member
farsi
So far I know there are some 13 types of _al. ال. that 12 of them can be seen in the following verses
Would you please tell me their English and Arabic terms:

عملوا الصالحات (2:25

فعصی فرعون الرسول( 73:15

الیوم اکملت لکم (5:3

لقد رضی الله عن المومنین... الشجر
( 48:18)

جعلنا من الما کل شی حی (21:30

آن الانسان لفی خسر( 103:2

انت الرجل

السابقون السابقون. (56:10
من اهل المدینه (9:101
لغلامین یتیمین فی المدینه(18:82
الذی جعل لکم. (2:22

ال in الذی is زاید can we call it decorative
In السابقون is relative can we call it nominal /relative _al
How about the rest?
 
  • Ali Smith

    Senior Member
    Urdu - Pakistan
    If memory serves, there are four types of لام التعريف:

    الزائدة
    للجنس
    للعهد الذهني
    للعهد الخارجي

    I believe the one in إِنَّ الْإِنسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ is للجنس, but I am not sure.
     

    zj73

    Banned
    Punjabi - West Punjab
    Sometimes a man named Numan will be called النعمان. What kind of "al" is that and what is its purpose?
     

    Mahaodeh

    Senior Member
    Arabic, PA and IA.
    If memory serves, there are four types of لام التعريف:

    الزائدة
    للجنس
    للعهد الذهني
    للعهد الخارجي

    I believe the one in إِنَّ الْإِنسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ is للجنس, but I am not sure.
    The three types are
    الجنسية
    العهدية
    لبيان الحقيقة
    الزائدة
    I think it is زائد decorative
    Yes, in this case it’s زائدة.
     

    Ali Smith

    Senior Member
    Urdu - Pakistan
    Actually, there are two basic types of ال:

    1. اسمي
    2. حرفي

    The former (اسمي) has the meaning of الذي، التي، اللذان, etc. and is prefixed to an اسم فاعل or اسم مفعول. However, there is one condition: the اسم فاعل or اسم مفعول must not be derived from a stative verb. Thus, الكابر's ال is not اسمي, because the root كَبُرَ يَكْبُرُ is stative.

    The latter (حرفي) is of two types: زائد and غير زائد. The former (زائد) is only added to make the following word sound nice. It serves no other purpose.

    The latter (غير زائد) is of four types:

    1. جنسي
    2. استغراقي
    3. للعهد الخارجي
    4. للعهد الذهني

    The first type (جنسي) refers to a general concept, not an instance of it. Thus, in the saying الرجل خير من المرأة both الs are referring to general concepts, not instances. Another example is وَجَعَلْنَا مِنَ الْمَاءِ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ حَيٍّ ۖ أَفَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ "And we have made of water everything living".

    The remaining three types (استغراقي، للعهد الخارجي، and للعهد الذهني) are used when referring to an instance/instances, not a general concept. The first of them (استغراقي) is used when referring to all the instances of a general concept. Thus, in the Qur'an it says إن الإنسان لفي خسر. Here all the instances of إنسان are intended. Another example is يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ أَن يُخَفِّفَ عَنكُمْ ۚ وَخُلِقَ الْإِنسَانُ ضَعِيفًا "For man was created weak".

    The second (للعهد الخارجي) is used when referring to a specific instance/instances. Thus, in إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَا إِلَيْكُمْ رَسُولًا شَاهِدًا عَلَيْكُمْ كَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا إِلَىٰ فِرْعَوْنَ رَسُولًا (15) فَعَصَىٰ فِرْعَوْنُ الرَّسُولَ the ال is for العهد الخارجي because الرسول is referring to a specific instance of the concept رسول, namely the messenger who is mentioned in the preceding verse: كَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا إِلَىٰ فِرْعَوْنَ رَسُولًا. Other examples are إذ هما في الغار "When they were in the cave" and جاءني هذا الرجلُ "This man came to me" and الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ "Today I have completed for you your religion".

    The third (للعهد الذهني) is used when referring to an unspecified instance/instances. Thus, in

    قَالُوا يَا أَبَانَا مَا لَكَ لَا تَأْمَنَّا عَلَىٰ يُوسُفَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَنَاصِحُونَ (11) أَرْسِلْهُ مَعَنَا غَدًا يَرْتَعْ وَيَلْعَبْ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ (12) قَالَ إِنِّي لَيَحْزُنُنِي أَن تَذْهَبُوا بِهِ وَأَخَافُ أَن يَأْكُلَهُ الذِّئْبُ وَأَنتُمْ عَنْهُ غَافِلُونَ

    the word الذئب does not refer to a specific instance of the concept ذئب.

    However, the ال added to a proper noun (عَلَم), such as حارِث or فَضْل or نُعْمان falls into a separate category. Some people regard it as زائد but this is incorrect, for if it were زائد it would not change the meaning.
     
    Last edited:

    WadiH

    Senior Member
    Arabic
    I don't get the difference between جنسي and استغراقي.

    I also don't see a change in meaning between نعمان and النعمان if both are used as proper names.
     

    Ali Smith

    Senior Member
    Urdu - Pakistan
    I don't get the difference between جنسي and استغراقي.

    I also don't see a change in meaning between نعمان and النعمان if both are used as proper names.
    استغراقي refers to all the instances of a concept. E.g. يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ أَن يُخَفِّفَ عَنكُمْ ۚ وَخُلِقَ الْإِنسَانُ ضَعِيفًا "For man was created weak".
    جنسي refers to the concept, not to its instances. E.g. الأناة من الله or أهلك الناسَ الدينارُ الدرهمُ or كَمَثَلِ الْحِمَارِ يَحْمِلُ أَسْفَارًا

    النعمان is used to emphasize that the person named Nu'man resembles blood in some way (remember that نُعْمان means 'blood'). Similarly, if someone's name is Hasan you may call him الحسن if you wish to emphasize that he is beautiful/good, for حَسَن was originally an adjective meaning 'beautiful/good'. Similarly, if a person's name is Fadhl you may call him الفضل if you wish to emphasize that he is excessive in some respect, because فَضْل means 'to exceed'.

    However, if you simply want to call someone by his name ignoring his name's etymology, you will not prefix ال to it.
     

    WadiH

    Senior Member
    Arabic
    استغراقي refers to all the instances of a concept. E.g. يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ أَن يُخَفِّفَ عَنكُمْ ۚ وَخُلِقَ الْإِنسَانُ ضَعِيفًا "For man was created weak".
    جنسي refers to the concept, not to its instances. E.g. الأناة من الله or أهلك الناسَ الدينارُ الدرهمُ or كَمَثَلِ الْحِمَارِ يَحْمِلُ أَسْفَارًا

    Still seems to me that جنسي already encompasses استغراقي, i.e. استغراقي is just a subset of جنسي.

    النعمان is used to emphasize that the person named Nu'man resembles blood in some way (remember that نُعْمان means 'blood'). Similarly, if someone's name is Hasan you may call him الحسن if you wish to emphasize that he is beautiful/good, for حَسَن was originally an adjective meaning 'beautiful/good'. Similarly, if a person's name is Fadhl you may call him الفضل if you wish to emphasize that he is excessive in some respect, because فَضْل means 'to exceed'.

    However, if you simply want to call someone by his name ignoring his name's etymology, you will not prefix ال to it.

    These are all proper names referring to a specific individual, some of which happen to have ال in them and some don't, but they both remain proper names. Maybe you could argue that an ال version of the name is 'stronger', but in terms of definiteness/indefiniteness the ال is not adding anything.
     

    Abbe

    Senior Member
    Swedish
    According to al-Qurtubi its either ahd or jins

    al-Qurtubi
    { وكان الإنسان كفورا} الإنسان هنا الكافر. وقيل : وطبع الإنسان كفورا للنعم إلا من عصمه الله؛ فالإنسان لفظ الجنس.​
     
    Last edited:

    Ali Smith

    Senior Member
    Urdu - Pakistan
    Well, yes, it doesn’t refer to all people, so it can’t be إستغراقي.

    But does it make sense for it to be للجنس? Does it refer to a concept rather than instances of the concept?
     

    Abbe

    Senior Member
    Swedish
    It refers to mankind in general, just like you mentioned in your earlier post. Men (in general/as a species) are stronger than women. This is generally true but it doesnt apply to every single man and women
     

    Ali Smith

    Senior Member
    Urdu - Pakistan
    It refers to mankind in general, just like you mentioned in your earlier post. Men (in general/as a species) are stronger than women. This is generally true but it doesnt apply to every single man and women
    Thanks. So, when you use لام التعريف للجنس you're speaking in general. So, when the Qur'an says

    إن الإنسان لكفور

    it means that most, but not necessarily all, humans are ungrateful. Is that what is meant by للجنس?
     

    Mahaodeh

    Senior Member
    Arabic, PA and IA.
    Thanks. So, when you use لام التعريف للجنس you're speaking in general. So, when the Qur'an says

    إن الإنسان لكفور

    it means that most, but not necessarily all, humans are ungrateful. Is that what is meant by للجنس?
    No, it means all humans are كفور.
     

    Abbe

    Senior Member
    Swedish
    وَهُوَ الَّذِي أَحْيَاكُمْ أوجدكم من العدم ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ بعد أن أحياكم، ثُمَّ يُحْيِيكُمْ بعد موتكم، ليجازي المحسن بإحسانه، والمسيء بإساءته، إِنَّ الْإِنْسَانَ أي: جنسه، إلا من عصمه الله لَكَفُورٌ لنعم الله، كفور بالله، لا يعترف بإحسانه، بل ربما كفر بالبعث وقدرة ربه

    See also
    وقليل من عبادي الشكور
     
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