types of adverbials

Hela

Senior Member
Tunisia - French
Dear teachers,

Would you please correct my analysis?

1. We (Subject) nearly (adverbial of degree / approximation ?) missed (transitive verb?) our train (DO) this morning (adverbial of time).

2.
Europe (subj) gradually (adverbial of manner / degree?) became (copular verb) an economic community (subject complement) during the second part of the XXth century (adverbial of time).

3. A group of teenagers (subj) sold (ditransitive verb) the tourists (IO) some tickets (DO) for the tennis final (adverbial of purpose) on the black market (??) in the street outside the stadium (adverbial of location).

4. Do complex-transitive verbs appear only in the S V DO Co pattern ?
If we have an S V DO Ao pattern is the verb simply monotransitive ?

Thank you for your help.
Hela
 
  • elroy

    Imperfect Mod
    US English/Palestinian Arabic bilingual
    Hela said:
    Dear teachers,

    Would you please correct my analysis?

    1. We (Subject) nearly (adverbial of degree / approximation ? degree, I think) missed (transitive verb?) our train (DO) this morning (adverbial of time).

    2.
    Europe (subj) gradually (adverbial of manner / degree? I would go with manner) became (copular verb) an economic community (subject complement - I would call this a predicate nominative) during the second part of the XXth century (adverbial of time).

    3. A group of teenagers (subj) sold (ditransitive verb what's a ditransitive verb? "Sold" is transitive.) the tourists (IO) some tickets (DO) for the tennis final (adverbial of purpose no, this is an adjective describing the tickets) on the black market (?? adverbial of location, or manner, if you will) in the street outside the stadium (adverbial of location).

    4. Do complex-transitive verbs appear only in the S V DO Co pattern ?
    If we have an S V DO Ao pattern is the verb simply monotransitive ?
    I don't understand this question. Please define the terminology you use and give examples. :)

    Thank you for your help.
    Hela
    My answers...
     

    MiriamArg

    Senior Member
    River-Plate Spanish/English
    Hello, Hela. :)
    This is the same Miriam you've seen in another forum (I won't mention the name of the forum or its URL here).
    I agree with most of what Elroy has posted here.

    Some comments, though:
    1. In your sentence #2, "subject complement" and "predicate nominative" are two different names for the same thing.

    2. In sentence #3, "sold" is ditransitive (it takes two objects). In many cases, transitivity (and intransitivity) are not really inherent to the verb. Certain verbs can appear as monotransitive in some sentences, as ditransitive in others, and yet as complex-transitive in some others. There are also verbs that can be used both transitively and intransitively.
    In that same sentence, I'd call "on the black market" an adjunct (adverbial) of "figurative place".

    3. "Do complex-transitive verbs appear only in the S V DO Co pattern? If we have an S V DO Ao pattern is the verb simply monotransitive?"
    The answer to both questions is, basically, "yes". A verb is complex-transitive when it takes both a direct object and an object complement. The pattern for that construction is, precisely, SVOCo. If you have a verb with only one object, as in the SVOA pattern, then the verb is monotransitive. The adjunct (adverbial) is -in most cases but not always- an optional element, it may or may not be present.
    That said, many verbs will change from transitive to intransitive, and vice versa, according to how you use them in a sentence. This is different from saying that a verb will always be -for example- complex transitive or monotransitive. Many verbs can "change" (sort of) according to the way they are used.

    Regards,

    Miriam
     

    Hela

    Senior Member
    Tunisia - French
    Thank you so much Miriam, that was very kind of you.

    Now, what is "figurative place"? Does it mean that the adverbial doesn't refer to a location as such (physically) but rather to an imaginary one?

    As for sentence #3:

    A group of teenagers (subj) sold (ditransitive verb) the tourists (IO) some tickets (DO) for the tennis final (adverbial of purpose) OR some tickets for the tennis final (DO?) on the black market (adverbial of figurative location) in the street outside the stadium (adverbial of location).

    Would you be so kind as to give the list you know of the different adverbials that might appear in an English sentence? (Hope I'm not asking too much...)

    Kind regards,
    Hela
     

    MiriamArg

    Senior Member
    River-Plate Spanish/English
    You're welcome, Hela. :)

    I think sentence #3; rather, the "tickets for the tennis final" part, can be interpreted in two different ways. Let's turn the sentence into the passive voice. We can have two different constructions:

    1. Some tickets for the tennis final were sold to the tourists...
    2. Some tickets were sold to the tourists for the tennis final... (does this one sound a bit odd?)

    The parts underlined are the subjects.
    #1 would be the passive of the original sentence if we considered "some tickets for the tennis final" the D.O. of the active sentence.
    #2 would be the passive of the original sentence if we considered "some tickets" the D.O. and "for the tennis final" an adverbial.

    I think both interpretations are valid ("think" being the operative word here!).

    Tomorrow I'l post a list of types of adverbials.

    Miriam

    P.S. I almost forget!
    "Figurative place" means what you said: not a real place. An example could be "She sees him in her dreams". It might be argued that it could be an adverbial of time, though.
     

    Hela

    Senior Member
    Tunisia - French
    Dear Miriam,

    Would you please tell me also what's the difference between an adverb(ial) of manner, degree and approximation ?

    Many thanks,
    Hela
     
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