Ukrainian: -able/ -ible

ThomasK

Senior Member
Belgium, Dutch
I asked Google T for translations:


їсти те, що їстівне
пити те, що питнe
платити те, що доступно

is there a suffix above with the same meaning as -able (-ible) in English? I see something like /-ne/ or /-no/ above, but... ?
 
  • Slavic languages notoriously lack any direct equivalent of -able (which, in particular, has resulted in the colloquial complex -ábel'nyi/-íbel'nyi in Russian). In some cases, present passive participles may be used, in other - certain denominal adjectives (-n- is the suffix that frequently forms relative adjectives; cf. Rus съедобный s-yed-ob-n-yi "edible"). -e and -o are nominative singular inflections of neuter adjectives/participles and nouns.
     
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    -n- by itself is just a generic adjective suffix.

    However Polish does have a common counterpart to -able/-ible: -alny, as in jadalny (edible), odpowiedzialny (responsible). At least some words with this suffix seem to also exist in Ukrainian, like їдальний, відповідальний.
     
    -alny, as in jadalny (edible), odpowiedzialny (responsible)
    However, -alny isn't restricted to the meaning of capability (e.g. absurdalny "absurd"), and isn't the universal formant either (e.g. pitny "drinkable"). Generally, it's just a more or less levelled case of a particular group of relative adjectives that express the idea.
    At least some words with this suffix seem to also exist in Ukrainian
    It would be really surprising if they didn't, given the overwhelming amount of Polish loans and calques in Ukrainian. :)
     
    In some cases, present passive participles may be used, in other - certain denominal adjectives (-n- is the suffix that frequently forms relative adjectives; cf. Rus съедобный s-yed-ob-n-yi "edible").
    If we paraphrase an -able/-ible adj. in Dutch, we might say dat te eten is, meaning "that is to be/ that can be eaten"
    ...
     
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    However, -alny isn't restricted to the meaning of capability (e.g. absurdalny "absurd"), and isn't the universal formant either (e.g. pitny "drinkable"). Generally, it's just a more or less levelled case of a particular group of relative adjectives that express the idea.

    It would be really surprising if they didn't, given the overwhelming amount of Polish loans and calques in Ukrainian. :)
    Obviously Latin has lot of adjectives ending in -alis which also becomes -alny in Polish.
    I’m only counting the words formed natively from verbs (dostrzegalny doświadczalny jadalny karalny namacalny odczuwalny odpowiedzialny odwracalny opłacalny osiągalny przepuszczalny przetłumaczalny rozpoznawalny samowystarczalny składalny słyszalny uleczalny widzialny wybaczalny zmywalny etc.).
    „pitny” indeed lacks this suffix, but even then dictionaries include a rare synonym „pijalny”.
     
    If we paraphrase an -able/-ible adj. in Dutch, we might say dat te eten is, meaning "that is to be/ that can be eaten"
    ...
    Sure you always can paraphrase it somehow. The East Slavic structures would be typically ~"what is possible to eat".
    Obviously Latin has lot of adjectives ending in -alis which also becomes -alny in Polish.
    I suspect it was facilitated by the existence of the native agentive suffix -al.
     
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