You sure you are in the right forum? The words you gave are not of Turkey's. "xanum" seems Uzbek to me, so is "begum". Definitely not belong to here.
But I can understand what they mean, so to give your answer, No. "hanım" and "begüm" are proper root names without any suffixes or prefixes.
Only feminine maker suffix I can think of is -e. If you add it to Arabic origin words you'll get feminine. For example "sefire". 'sefir' means counsular. Thus 'sefire' is a female consular.
Thanks! These words are widely used in Persian. Considering most of non-Persian people who had these names were Turkic, I thought I could find a trace in Turkish language. Probably they have some Tatar or Mongolian roots. I think I'd better post it in etymology forum.