uncle, aunt, cousin

Discussion in 'All Languages' started by darush, Feb 14, 2012.

  1. darush Senior Member

    How many are in your language?
    there are two kinds of uncle and aunt in Persian. amoo: brother of father and dayi: brother of mother, khale: sister of mother, amme: sister of father
    considering gender and two different uncles/aunts, there are eight different cousins:

    1. pesar amoo(son of amoo), 2. dokhtar amoo(daughter of amoo), 3. pesar dayi, 4. dokhtar dayi,...
    Last edited: Feb 15, 2012
  2. DearPrudence

    DearPrudence Dépêche Mod (AL mod)

    French (lower Normandy)
    In French, this is pretty simple:
    an uncle: un oncle (no difference if it's you're father's brother, your mother's brother or even your aunt's husband)
    an aunt: une tante
    a cousin: un cousin (germain) (nm, for males), une cousine (germaine) (nf, for females)
  3. apmoy70

    apmoy70 Senior Member

    In Greek:

    Uncle: «Θείος» /'θios/ (masculine); from the Classical «θεῖος» ('tʰeiŏs)--> one's father's/mother's brother, uncle. Cognate with the Classical feminine noun «τήθη» ('tētʰē)--> grandmother; PIE base *dʰē-, relative, older member of family (cf. Latin thīus, OS дѣдъ/dědŭ, Lith. dėdė).
    Aunt: «Θεία» /'θia/ (feminine); the Hellenistic/Koine feminine version of «θείος». In the Classical language, aunt was described with the feminine noun «τηθίς» (tē'tʰīs), PIE base *dʰē-.
    Cousin: «Εξάδελφος» /e'ksaðelfos/ (masculine), «εξαδέλφη» /eksa'ðelfi/ (feminine). Colloquially, «ξάδελφος» /'ksaðelfos/, «ξαδέλφη» /ksa'ðelfi/. In the Classical language, «ἐξάδελφος» (ĕ'ksădĕlpʰŏs, m.& f.) meant nephew. Compound, preposition and prefix «ἐκ» (ĕκ) which becomes «ἐξ» (ĕκs) when the next word begins with a vowel--> out of, from, forth from (PIE base *eghs-, out) + noun and adj. «ἀδελφός, -φή, -φὸν» (ădĕl'pʰŏs, m./ădĕl'pʰē, f./ădĕl'pʰŏn, n.)--> init. son of the same mother[1] (masculine noun) later, brother in general, adj. sisterly (feminine) later as a noun sister (fem.), adj. brotherly (neuter).

    [1]From the Ionian feminine noun «δελφύς» (dĕl'pʰūs), Doric «δελφύᾱ» (dĕl'pʰūā)--> womb, cognate with dolpin, Delphi (the oracle on Mount Parnassus), PIE base *gelebʰ-/*geleb-/*glēbʰ-/*glēb-, to mass together, conglomerate, form. «Ἀδελφός» was in the pre-Classical language the son who opened the same womb. The son of the same father was either «φράτηρ» ('pʰrātēr), from PIE base *bhréH₂ter-, brother, or «κασίγνητος» (kă'sĭgnētŏs); compound, masculine noun «κάσις» ('kāsīs)--> brother (with obsure etymology) + neuter noun «γένος» ('gĕnŏs)--> race, stock, kind (PIE base *gen-, to produce, beget, be born).
  4. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    - oom (in Flanders nonkel, comparable to English 'uncle')
    - tante ('aunt')
    - neef /nicht(je), cousin m/f... (both cousin and nephew)
  5. snoopymanatee

    snoopymanatee Senior Member

    In Turkish:


    1. amca --> brother of father

    2. dayı --> brother of mother


    1. hala --> sister of father

    2. teyze --> sister of mother


    1. kuzen --> son of uncle/aunt (this is used for both genders in daily life)

    2. kuzin --> daughter of uncle/aunt (this is not used in daily life)

    I wonder what are those eight different cousins in your language? :)
  6. Jabir

    Jabir Senior Member

    Portuguese - Brazil

    Tio -> Male Uncle
    Tia -> Female Uncle
    Primo -> Male Cousin
    Prima -> Female Cousin
  7. tFighterPilot Senior Member

    Israel - Hebrew
    Dod - uncle.
    Doda - aunt.
    Ben dod - male cousin.
    Bat dod - female cousin. Often mistakenly replaced with Bat doda.
    Ben doda - technically a word, but it's never used.
  8. darush Senior Member

    4(U/A)×2(genders)= 8 cousins
    in Azari(Azeri) there are also 8 cousins: dayi gizi/oghli, khala gizi/oghli,....
    Last edited: Feb 15, 2012
  9. snoopymanatee

    snoopymanatee Senior Member

    Oh, if we think that way, Turkish looks like Azeri. (or Azeri looks like Turkish) :)

    1. amca oğlu --> son of uncle

    2. amca kızı --> daughter of uncle

    3. hala oğlu --> son of aunt

    4. hala kızı --> daughter of aunt

    5. dayı oğlu --> son of uncle

    6. dayı kızı --> daughter of uncle

    7. teyze oğlu --> son of aunt

    8. teyze kızı --> daughter of aunt
  10. arielipi Senior Member

    tfighter - you should have explained...
    bat - is daughter of
    ben is son of
    dod and doda are brother and sister of father/mother respectively[doesnt matter which side]
    we can have ben/bat doda/dod
    also we have second ben dod etc which means he is close to me with second degree.
    more interesting is that you actually have a word for the grandchild of the grandchild of the grandfather
  11. terredepomme Senior Member

    Human Language
    There is a lot in Korean.
    For example a married younger brother of father is 작은아버지.
    An older brother of father is 큰아버지.
    A single brother of father is 삼촌.
    A sister of father is 고모.
    A sister of mother is 이모.(큰이모 for older sisters and 작은이모 for younger sisters)
    And so on.
    Also there are different ways how these people should call each other correctly.
    We NEVER call people just by their names.
    There is like a chart of words that you have to memorize to call your relatives correctly.
  12. AutumnOwl Senior Member

    Kusin - cousin

    Farbror - father's brother or husband of father's sister
    Faster - father's sister or wife of father's brother

    Morbror - mother's brother or husband of mother's sister
    Moster - mother's sister or wife of mother's brother

    Brorson - brother's son
    Brorsdotter - brother's daughter

    Systerson - sister's son
    Systerdotter - sister's daughter

    Farfar - father's father
    Farmor - father's mother

    Morfar - mother's father
    Mormor - mother's mother
  13. darush Senior Member

    too nice! you have two kinds of grandmother/grand father, we have only one. Mormor and Farmor is: madar bozorg, Morfar and Farfar is: pedar bozorg
    Systerson/dotter: khaharzade, Brorson/dotter: baradarzade
  14. AutumnOwl Senior Member

    You can also use the word syskonbarn - sibling(s) children when talking about all of the below, whether its just one or several of them:

    - brother's son
    Brorsdotter - brother's daughter
    Systerson - sister's son
    Systerdotter - sister's daughter
  15. jana.bo99

    jana.bo99 Senior Member

    Cro, Slo

    BAKA (BABA) - mother's or father's mother
    DJED - mother's or father's father
    PRABAKA i PRADJED - parents from both parents

    STRIC I STRINA - Father's brother and his wife
    TETA (TETKA) I TETAK - mother's or father's sister and her husband
    UJAK I UJNA - mother's brother and his wife
    STRIČEVIĆI - sons from two brothers
    STRIČEVINE - daughters from two sisters
    SESTRIĆI - Sons from two sisters
    SESTRIČNE - daughters from two sisters
    BRATIĆ - brother's son
    BRATIČNA - brother's daughter
    SESTRIĆ - sister's son
    SESTRIČNA - sister's daughter
    SINOVAC - brother's son
    SINOVKA - brother's daughter

    ZAOVA - husband's sister
    DJEVER - husband’s brother
    SVASTIKA - wife's sister
    ŠURJAK - wife's brother
    SVAK - sister's husband
    ZAOVAC - husband from husband's sister
    NEVJESTA - son's or brother's wife

    SNAHA - son's wife
    ZET - daughter’s husband

    PUNAC (TAST) i PUNICA - wife's parents
    SVEKAR I SVEKRVA - husband's parents
  16. Anja.Ann

    Anja.Ann Senior Member

    Hello, Darush :)

    In Italian:

    - uncle: "zio" (masculine

    - aunt: "zia" (feminine)

    - cousin:
    * "cugino" (masculine)
    * "cugina" (feminine)
  17. Moro12 Senior Member

    In Russian:

    uncle (father’s brother or mother’s brother) – дядя (DYAH-dyuh), IPA: [ˈd̻jæ.d̻jə], or дядька (DYAH-t’kuh), IPA: [ˈd̻jæ.t̻j] (the former version is neutral; the latter one mostly used as a pejorative form in the modern language);

    aunt (father’s sister or mother’s sister) – тётя (TYOH-tyuh), IPA: [ˈt̻ʲɵ̞.t̻ʲə], or тётка (TYOH-tkuh), IPA: [ˈt̻ʲɵ̞.t̪kə] (the former version is neutral but colloquial; the latter one is used in official documents, however in colloquial speech it is used as a pejorative form).

    Note 1. Both дядя and тётя have a second meaning in Russian: they are also used to refer to adult strangers (дядя for a man and тётя for a woman), mostly (but not only) by children. For example, children often address their parents’ friends as дядя + name or тётя + name.

    Note 2. Like other Slavic languages, Russian has multiple hypocoristic or endearment forms: дядя – дядюшка (DYAH-dyoo-shkuh), дядечка (DYAH-dyee-chkuh), дяденька (DYAH-dyee-n’kuh); тётя – тётушка (TYOH-too-shkuh), тётечка (TYOH-tyee-chkuh), тётенька (TYOH-tyee-n’kuh), each of them having its own nuances of usage.

    cousin (uncle’s son or aunt’s son) – двоюродный брат (dvah-YOO-rud-nuy BRAHT), IPA: [d̪vɐ.ˈju.rəd̪.n̪ᵻɪ̯.brat̪] (lit.: “second-kin brother”);

    cousin (uncle’s daughter or aunt’s daughter) – двоюродная сестра (dvah-YOO-rud-nuh-yuh syee-STRAH), IPA: [d̪vɐ.ˈju.rəd̪.n̪ə.jə.s̪jɪ.ˈs̪t̪ra] (lit.: “second-kin sister”).
  18. Nizo Senior Member

    In Esperanto, it's very easy:

    uncle/aunt onklo / onklino
    cousin (m/f) kuzo / kuzino
  19. ahmedcowon Senior Member

    1 year has passed :)

    In Arabic:

    Father's brother = عم amm
    Father's sister = عمة amma

    Mother's brother = خال khaal
    Mother's sister = خالة khaala

    For "cousin", we also have 8 different cousins:
    son of = ابن ibn (example: son of mother's sister = ابن خالة ibn khaala)
    daughter of = بنت bent (example: daughter of father's brother = بنت عم bent 3amm)
  20. Johnny Milutinović

    Johnny Milutinović New Member

    Well, this is one thing where Serbian language is very rich, family relations (similar like in Croatian):
    uncle: 1. ујак, (or уја informally) (this is your maternal uncle); 2. теча (this is your paternal aunt's husband); 3. стриц (this is your father's brother)
    aunt: 1. тетка (this can be a father's sister or a mother's sister); 2. ујна (this is your maternal uncle's wife); 3. стрина (this is your paternal uncle's wife)
    cousin. Here, we need context if we we're aiming for translation accuracy. The umbrella term is рођак (рођака, f.). However, if we are talking about our first cousins, we normally say брат/сестра од тетке/стрица/ујака. Literally, we call our cousins "brothers" and "sisters". To differentiate them from our siblings, we need to add explanation, so, literally, we say "brother/sister from my aunt's/uncle's side", depending on how related we are with this person (through our paternal/maternal aunt or paternal/maternal uncle). This is a rather clumsy translation into English, and it really makes no sense, I know:p, but it is how we call our relations!
  21. itreius Senior Member

    Are the words bratić and sestrična not used in Serbia?
  22. Johnny Milutinović

    Johnny Milutinović New Member

    Well, we have братанац (a nephew, my brother's son) and сестричина (a niece, my sister's daughter), if that is what you meant. To be honest, I am not sure what bratić and sestrična refet to. :(
  23. itreius Senior Member

    Bratić is a male cousin, sestrična is a female cousin.
  24. Johnny Milutinović

    Johnny Milutinović New Member

    OK, now I understand. No, we don't use those words. To the best of my knowledge at least. :)
  25. DreamerX Member

    I was wondering how the words aunt and uncle were used in your language, and there are many dimensions that I would like to explore in this regard.

    1/ First of all, does your language have one or more words for aunt and uncle? In theory, aunt can denote a mother’s sister, a father’s sister, the wife of a father’s brother, or the wife of a mother’s brother. Ditto for uncle. I know that some languages only have one word to cover all of these meanings, whereas others have a separate word for each. As well, some languages might be “selective” in what type of aunt or uncle should be accorded a separate word (e.g., there is a separate name for a mother’s sister and a father’s sister, but only one word denoting the wife of a spouse’s brother, whether said spouse is a man or a woman), and some might have a separate word for each of them as well as a universal word for all of them.

    2/ Second of all, we have the pet name Auntie, although Uncle doesn’t seem to have an equivalent. I was wondering if your language also had more “endearing” forms of the words aunt and uncle and whether they applied to one or both of them. If there is more than one form, I would appreciate a full list.

    3/ In North America, children can sometimes refer to friends of family members as Aunt or Uncle + first name (e.g., Aunt Melinda, Uncle Kenneth). This is not universal, but it is not that uncommon. In some cultures, this practice is simply unheard of, whereas in others, it is even more extensive.

    4/ I’ve heard that elsewhere in the world, children even referred to adult strangers as aunt and uncle, without the given names. That is, aunt and uncle stand in for man and woman in children’s active vocabulary. For example, “that man over there carrying a briefcase” would be “that uncle over there carrying a briefcase.” In North America, this is simply never done. We only say man and woman when talking about total strangers. In French, a parent might say to her child “Tu vois ce monsieur là-bas?” Literally, this means “Do you see that mister/sir over there?” Of course, a child would still use homme (man), but monsieur (“Mr.”) and madame (“Mrs.”) as generic nouns rather than honorifics are commonly used to refer to strangers, although mostly by adults. However, oncle (uncle) and tante (aunt) are never used for people who are not relatives (I’m still not sure about close family friends). What is the case in your mother tongue?

    Thanks in advance for your replies!
    Last edited by a moderator: Aug 17, 2014
  26. Radioh

    Radioh Senior Member

    Sydney, Australia
    Hi dreamerx. First, I want to tell you that how to address properly and correctly an aunt or an uncle in a family in my country is extremely complicated.
    1/ We have many kinds of aunt and uncle and there is a seperate word for each kind of them. For example :
    Mother's brother = cậu
    Father's younger brother = chú
    Father's older brother = bác and even aunt's husband = dượng...
    2/ Endearing name ? We don't have a pet name related to aunt or uncle (if this is what you mean).
    3/ Yes, always Aunt/Uncle + first name. It shows respect and it is what we say.
    4/ Calling or referring to a stranger as aunt/uncle (if they seem much older than you or you want to be polite) is common.
    In essence, we rarely call someone without a title name (except friends).
  27. AutumnOwl Senior Member

    Moster - mother's sister or sister-in-law
    Morbror - mother's brother or brother-in-law
    Faster - father's sister or sister-in-law
    Farbror - father's brother or brother-in-law
    Moster/faster are short for mors syster/fars syster
    But when addressing the person today most children would use their given name, not aunt/uncle.

    2. No for relatives, but about woman not related to you it's tant, not moster/faster, a man is farbror, never morbror.

    3. When I was young (about 50 years ago) I called my parents friends for tant x and farbror y, it's perhaps still done when talking about very young children, but the practice for children to call adults tant/farbror has more or less disappeared during the 1970ies and later on. I would be very surprised if my friends children called me tant (and make me feel very old). Today children use the person's first name, be it relatives or other adults.

    4. When I was a child (see above) strangers were called tant and farbror, it can sometimes still be heard when parents talk with very young children (under five or so) but with older children it's mannen/kvinnan or killen/tjejen (guy/gal) if talking about a younger person.
  28. arielipi Senior Member

    1. one word for all aunts and one for all uncles, דוד dod דודה doda uncle aunt respectively. as with anything in hebrew, the cousin would be either a male or a female, and its translation is son/daughter-of-aunt/uncle. we are supposed to say the person's blood relativity, e.g. if the uncle is blood-tied (brother of mom/dad) we are supposed to say בן\בת דוד ben/bat dod. if the aunt is blood-tied then בן\בת דודה ben bat doda.

    2. no
    3. in israel we teach young kids uncle + name, but later they use the name. (this is true to all relatives except mom/dad and grandparents).
    4. to nice strangers e.g. a nice store-seller who sells candies we could say say thanks to the uncle. its a bit outdated nowadays though.
  29. Gavril Senior Member

    English, USA
    Old English:

    fæðera "paternal uncle"

    eam "maternal uncle"

    faðu "paternal aunt"

    moddrige "maternal aunt"

    No idea about questions 2-4 in this case. :)

    EDIT -- since this thread has been merged with a thread about "cousin" terms, I'll add some more info:

    broþor "parallel cousin" (i.e. child of one's paternal uncle or maternal aunt)
    swor / sweor "cross cousin" (i.e. child of one's paternal aunt or maternal uncle)

    broþor was also the OE word for "brother", and sweor could also mean "father-in-law". As far as I currently know, Old English did not have an unambiguous word for "cousin" as we now think of it.
    Last edited: Aug 17, 2014
  30. DearPrudence

    DearPrudence Dépêche Mod (AL mod)

    French (lower Normandy)
    1) It's pretty straightforward in French:
    aunt: tante
    uncle: oncle

    2) Endearing forms:
    aunt: tata (note that "tante" and "tata" are also used colloquially to refer to me a male homosexual)
    uncle: tonton

    3) It is not usual to call "tonton/tata" someone who is just a friend.
    Personally, I don't even call my own uncles and aunts "oncle/tonton" or "tante/aunt" (I just use their first names).

    4) As you said, kids would use "monsieur/madame" (sir/madam) to refer to a "man/woman".
  31. Rallino Moderatoúrkos


    amca: father's brother
    dayı: mother's brother
    hala: father's sister
    teyze: mother's sister

    enişte: the husband of mother's/father's sister
    yenge: the wife of mother's/father's brother
  32. fdb Senior Member

    Cambridge, UK
    French (France)
    I think you mean the given name (which in Vietnamese comes last), not the "first" (family) name. Is that right?
  33. Radioh

    Radioh Senior Member

    Sydney, Australia
    Oh yes, fdb, given name. I always mix these things up.
  34. AutumnOwl Senior Member

    In Swedish svär-, svå- is used for the in-laws:
    svärfar - father-in-law
    svärmor - mother-in-law
    svärföräldrar - parents-in-law
    svägerska - sister-in-law
    svåger - brother-in-law
  35. fdb Senior Member

    Cambridge, UK
    French (France)
    Thank you for the confirmation! On the other hand, you do say Bác Hồ, don't you?
  36. Dymn Senior Member

    Catalan, Catalonia
    In Catalan:

    Uncle: oncle
    Aunt: tia
    Cousin: cosí (m), cosina (f)
  37. Radioh

    Radioh Senior Member

    Sydney, Australia
    You're very welcome, fdb. Yes, we say Bác Hồ. This is one exception that "Uncle + first name" is used. Don't really know why not Bác Minh; maybe Bác Minh sounds less respect and informal(It does to me, indeed.)
    ps: I can see that you know much about Vietnam, don't you, fdb ?
  38. Glamour21 Member

    In Filipino:

    Tita (Auntie)
    Tito (Uncle)
    Tatay (Father)
    Nanay (Mother)
    Ate (Older Sister)
    Kuya (Older Brother)
    Pinsan (Cousin)

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