Urdu, Hindi, Punjabi: contagion

marrish

Senior Member
اُردو Urdu
Hello,

Contagion is the word used in English to denote the spreading of germs by direct or indirect contact. The simple way of conveying it which comes to my mind is ''biimaarii phailnaa'' but it doesn't seem satisfactory because it is not specific enough.

Could we have the sample sentence ''The risk of contagion is higher in schools and public places'' please?
 
  • Qureshpor

    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    skuuloN aur 3avaamii jaghoN meN chhuut kii biimaariyoN kaa xadshah/xatrah ziyaadah hai.
     

    Alfaaz

    Senior Member
    English
    marrish said:
    Could we have the sample sentence ''The risk of contagion is higher in schools and public places'' please?
    خطر العدوی مدارس اور عوامی مقامات/جگہوں میں اکبر/زیادہ ہے.
    تعدیہ ، متعدی مرض
    xatar-al-a'dwaa madaaris aur a'waami maqamaat/jaghoN meiN akbar/ziyaadah hai
    ta'diyah, muta-a'ddi marz
     

    marrish

    Senior Member
    اُردو Urdu
    I'm very much obliged for all the answers so far, which provide a good variety of possible expressions.

    Can we have an attempt at Hindi and Punjabi?
     

    Qureshpor

    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    A question to everyone. Has the usage "chhuut kii biimaariyaaN" become obsolete?
     

    marrish

    Senior Member
    اُردو Urdu
    A question to everyone. Has the usage "chhuut kii biimaariyaaN" become obsolete?
    This contribution is very much appreciated as it is simple and unpretentious, and it is not obsolete at all! Very much used, but the problem is that it doesn't cover 'indirect contagion', like contagion through air...
     

    greatbear

    Banned
    India - Hindi & English
    A question to everyone. Has the usage "chhuut kii biimaariyaaN" become obsolete?

    Not obsolete; there is also "chhuua-chhuut kii biimaariyaaN". As marrish said, it refers specifically to diseases caused through human contact, not other forms of contagion.
     

    Faylasoof

    Senior Member
    English (UK) & Urdu (Luckhnow), Hindi
    This contribution is very much appreciated as it is simple and unpretentious, and it is not obsolete at all! Very much used, but the problem is that it doesn't cover 'indirect contagion', like contagion through air...
    marrish SaaHib, perhaps a small point but contagion through air as such doesn't happen! Through aerosol, contaminated water etc., yes. If via aerosol, then that is again person-to-person contact and if via water or by touch as well (e.g. SARS infection not that long ago) that is of course indirect contagion but it is still contagion. I know wabaa covers everything, both direct and indirect contagion, so are you saying that chhuut wouldn't be a proper term to use if we are talking of, say, a cholera (هيضه haiDhah) epidemic, which is not spread by direct contact. I know we can use wabaa for this.
     

    tonyspeed

    Senior Member
    English & Creole - Jamaica
    A question to everyone. Has the usage "chhuut kii biimaariyaaN" become obsolete?

    No, this is still the expression for contagious diseases in Hindi.

    But I don't see why it has to be limited to touching even though the root is obviously Chhuu. I think this may be being somewhat pedantic.
    I'm sure it was invented far before people even thought about aerosol contagions, but I don't see why it has to be limited to the past...
     
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    greatbear

    Banned
    India - Hindi & English
    Well, tonyspeed, the expression for contagious diseases in Hindi is "saNkramak rog"; for "chhuut kii biimaariyaaN", touch is essential - nothing pedantic about it.
     

    marrish

    Senior Member
    اُردو Urdu
    marrish SaaHib, perhaps a small point but contagion through air as such doesn't happen! Through aerosol, contaminated water etc., yes. If via aerosol, then that is again person-to-person contact and if via water or by touch as well (e.g. SARS infection not that long ago) that is of course indirect contagion but it is still contagion. I know wabaa covers everything, both direct and indirect contagion, so are you saying that chhuut wouldn't be a proper term to use if we are talking of, say, a cholera (هيضه haiDhah) epidemic, which is not spread by direct contact. I know we can use wabaa for this.
    Thank you for the correction of my unfortunate expression - what I meant to say was that air is the carrier in case of aerosol.
    Is wabaa not a too heavy a term for eg. flu?
     

    Qureshpor

    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    To the best of my understanding, the word for "contagion" in Punjabi is "chhuut".
     

    tonyspeed

    Senior Member
    English & Creole - Jamaica
    Well, tonyspeed, the expression for contagious diseases in Hindi is "saNkramak rog"; for "chhuut kii biimaariyaaN", touch is essential - nothing pedantic about it.


    This is an interesting thought, and it might be for some. But both in dictionaries AND in practice by speakers I have heard Chuut kii bimaari used for a contageous infection with no idea of touch involved.

    I doubt that saNkramak rog is a layman's term. So I think maybe this is where the dividing line lies.


    In harmony with QP, one dictionary even says CHuut lag jaanaa - to get a contagious infection - CHuut kaa rog / CHuut kii biimaarii - contagious disease
     

    greatbear

    Banned
    India - Hindi & English
    Well, on further thought, I think you and QP are right. "saNkramak rog" is "infectious disease", whereas "chhuut kii bimaarii" is "contagious disease".
     

    marrish

    Senior Member
    اُردو Urdu
    I'm curious about a word I came across when incidentally reading a short Hindi piece: महामारी /mahaamaarii/. Have you ever come across it (@littlepond jii?) and secondly, how can it be interpreted?
     
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    littlepond

    Senior Member
    Hindi
    Yes, @marrish jii, "mahaamaarii" is a commonly used word in Hindi to indicate usually a disease which affects the population on a large scale, an epidemic.
     

    Qureshpor

    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    Yes, @marrish jii, "mahaamaarii" is a commonly used word in Hindi to indicate usually a disease which affects the population on a large scale, an epidemic.
    Can it be broken into mahaa + maarii, ie maarii on a great scale? If yes, maarii does not quite sound right. Perhaps mahaa + mrityu?
     

    littlepond

    Senior Member
    Hindi
    Can it be broken into mahaa + maarii, ie maarii on a great scale? If yes, maarii does not quite sound right. Perhaps mahaa + mrityu?

    Yes, it is indeed a composition of "mahaa" and "maarii", but not everyone dies. "maar" (here become "maarii") is a word with wider scope than "mrityu".
     

    marrish

    Senior Member
    اُردو Urdu
    Thanks littlepond SaaHib, and Q SaaHib for further questioning, too. I think I get it now: maarii is as if a "name" given to a general epidemic 'affecting all'=pandemic? and killing people, "the great-killer-disease", like a "death-wave".

    [Edit: Now that I see in Platts, there are three maariis all neatly described as ever, with 2:1 for the invisible killer]

    ماری मारि māri (p. 981) S ماري मारि māri, s.f. Killing, slaying; ruin; — any deadly disease, pestilence, &c. (see next).

    ماری मारी mārī (p. 981) H ماری मारी mārī [Prk. मारिआ; S. मारिका], s.f. Deadly disease, plague, pestilence, epidemic; murrain; — mortality; — arduous toil, hard labour.

    [ ماری मारी mārī (p. 981) H ماری मारी mārī [mār, q.v.+Prk. इआ = S. इका], s.f. Beating; blow, &c. (see mār and mārā): — mārī paṛnā (-par), To be cozened, or swindled, or done: — mārī-ke, adv. (dialec.) In profusion; very much.]

    And there's marii which I'd known as similar to وبا ْwabaa, but haven't connected it to maarii.

    مری मरी marī (p. 1027) H مری मरी marī, or मर्री marrī [S. मारिका; cf. marak], s.f. A plague, pestilence, an epidemic; cholera morbus; murrain: — marī paṛnā, v.n. A plague or pestilence to occur: — marī-liyā (fem. marī-lī), adj. Plague-stricken; — fit for death (peculiar to the language of women).
     
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    Qureshpor

    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    Thank you marrish SaaHib for taking the time to look up the words maarii and marii and providing the complete definitions.
     
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