Urdu, Hindi, Punjabi: -daan دان- -दान -ਦਾਨ -triple suffix

marrish

Senior Member
اُردو Urdu
Hi, so far I can say that there are three (!) different suffixes -daan. This is quite a thing.

1) -daan as in bhuudaan भूदान بھودان - coming from a Sanskrit noun 'daana-' meaning 'offering, gift'.
2) -daan as in 3itr-daan ऎत्र (इतर)-दान عطردان meaning a receptacle;
3) -daan like the suffix of science-daan, taariix-daan, zabaan-daan, denotes an expert of a field, from Persian 'daanestan-to know'

As far as I know there should be no differences in the pronunciation of these suffixes. Perhaps some new things about Hindi can be learnt.

However, at least the one described under No. 3 does very happily exchange its final consonant n in favour of the nasal vowel like in muHaawara-daaN, raaz-daaN, qaanuun-daaN etc etc.

Do other words get nasalized as well?
Are there other examples or meanings of this suffix?
Are there some other pronunciations?

bachchah-daan, which suffix is this? And, what is the origin of the second one?
 
  • molana

    Senior Member
    Persian
    what is the origin of the second one?
    It also originates in Persian, even if you do not invite Persian speakers to the thread which you have opened.:oops:

    The second ''دان-'' means a container/receptacle/place.
    scent-bottle:عطردان
    flowerpot:گُلدان
    salt shaker/cellar:نَمَکدان
    siutcase:چَمِدان(It seems to be the Russian pronunciation of the Persian ''جامه دان'').
    tea caddy:چای دان(I found that you use چائی دانی to mean teapot).
    dustbin:آشغال دان

    bachchah-daan, which suffix is this?
    The second one.
    womb:بچه دان=زِهدان
     
    Last edited:

    Alfaaz

    Senior Member
    English
    Just as molana SaaHib has detailed above, Platts also mentions a Persian origin (with a possible Sanskrit cognate) for the second one:
    P دان dān [Pehl. dān; Zend dāna; S. धान], An affix denoting the receptacle, place, or stand (for a thing;—e.g. pīk-dān; qalām-dān; shamʻ-dān, &c., qq.v.).
    marrish said:
    However, at least the one described under No. 3 does very happily exchange its final consonant n in favour of the nasal vowel like in muHaawara-daaN, raaz-daaN, qaanuun-daaN etc etc.

    Do other words get nasalized as well?
    In my limited experience (which may be different than that of others), the nasalized versions are not quite commonly used in speech and general writing, even though they are used in poetry.
    marrish said:
    Are there some other pronunciations?
    There is the feminine and diminutive form daanii:
    P داني dānī (see dān), s.f. Receptacle, place, &c. (used in comp., e.g. tel-dānī).
    Was there a specific reason for asking these questions? Have you come across other meanings/usages of دان as a suffix...?
     

    marrish

    Senior Member
    اُردو Urdu
    It also originates in Persian, even if you do not invite Persian speakers to the thread which you have opened.:oops:

    The second ''دان-'' means a container/receptacle/place.
    scent-bottle:عطردان
    flowerpot:گُلدان
    salt shaker/cellar:نَمَکدان
    siutcase:چَمِدان(It seems to be the Russian pronunciation of the Persian ''جامه دان'').
    tea caddy:چای دان(I found that you use چائی دانی to mean teapot).
    dustbin:آشغال دان


    The second one.
    womb:بچه دان=زِهدان
    Almost all words that you have provided are there in Urdu too, only for a dust-bin we say kuuRedaan - a native word, and for a tea pot you have found your way to the Urdu thread. You are always welcome as others are to Urdu threads! This one is for three languages which use this suffix in three meanings - Persian doesn't - "only" two are there, so I didn't put Persian in the title. Still, considering that Persian is the language from which the two suffixes are acquired from, I think it's a good idea to put a Persian "tag" for such threads, even if Persian isn't mentioned as the source/target language in the title. Wondering if such a manner of proceedings would go against Forum rules :)
    Just as molana SaaHib has detailed above, Platts also mentions a Persian origin (with a possible Sanskrit cognate) for the second one: (quote).
    In my limited experience (which may be different than that of others), the nasalized versions are not quite commonly used in speech and general writing, even though they are used in poetry. There is the feminine and diminutive form daanii: Was there a specific reason for asking these questions? Have you come across other meanings/usages of دان as a suffix...?
    It's good to know about the origin because I wasn't sure about it. The Skr cognate makes sense, it is described by Turner's Etymological dictionary of IA languages as follows:
    6775 dhāˊna n. (in cmpds.) ʻ receptacle ʼ RV., dhānī -- f. (in cmpds.) ʻ id. ʼ Kauś., ʻ site of habitation ʼ lex. [√dhā]
    Pa. dhāna -- n. ʻ receptacle (e.g. of dust, ashes, &c.) ʼ, dhānī -- f. in rāja -- dh° ʻ royal town ʼ; K. dān m. ʻ earthen fireplace ʼ; Ku. dhāṇik ʻ mousetrap ʼ; H. dhānā m. ʻ the portion of a village inhabited by Gonds ʼ (cf. *ḍōmbadhāna -- ) [...]

    Seems in Hindi it has only survived as dhaanaa (the last one above) and in raajdhaanii in both Urdu and Hindi for a capital city, but here the feminine version points to a 'site of habitation', not quite like the diminutive daan -> daanii.

    I haven't yet come across yet other meanings for -daan! The reason for asking these questions is naturally to gain knowledge, but I also wanted to present this information for all to have.
    Quiet impressive information
    I'm glad I could be of service!

    Alfaaz SaaHib, thanks for your valuable remarks about nasalization. I will try to come back to this issue when we have some more material (contributions).
     
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