Urdu & Hindi translation into Persian & English: to (تو)

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Alfaaz

Senior Member
English
Background: This question arose while trying to help (by PM) a Persian speaking forum member learning Urdu with a few sentences. Relevant examples from various lyrics are provided below:


تم ضدّ تو کر رہے ہو ، ہم کیا تمہیں سنائیں
نغمے جو کھو گئے ہیں ، انکو کہاں سے لائین

tum zidd to kar rahe ho, hum kyaa tumheiN sunaa'eN
naghme jo kho ga'e haiN, unko kahaaN se laa'eN

پیار کرنا تو اک عبادت ہے ، پیار کرنا کوئی گناہ نہیں
بے وفائی کے ہوں نشاں جس پر ، منزلِ عشق کی وہ راہ نہیں

pyaar karnaa to ik 3ibaadat hai, pyaar karnaa ko'ii gunaah naheeN
be-wafaa'ii ke hoN nishaaN jis par, manzil-e-ishq ki woh raah naheeN

مجھے تم نظر سے گرا تو رہے ہو ، مجھے تم کبھی بھی بھلا نہ سکو گے
نہ جانے مجھے کیوں یقیں ہو چلا ہے ، میرے پیار کو تم مٹا نہ سکو گے

mujhe tum nazar se giraa to rahe ho, mujhe tum kabhi bhi bhulaa nah sako ge
nah jaane mujhe kyuuN yaqeeN ho chalaa hai, mere pyaar ko tum miTaa nah sako ge

فریب کھا گیا اگر کوئی کسی کے پیار کا ، ہمیشہ دیکھتا رہا وہ خواب وصلِ یار کا
نہ یار اسکو مل سکا ، نہ پیار اسکو مل سکا ، جو مل سکا تو صرف انتظار اسکو مل سکا
وصلِ یار کی دعا نہ مانگیئے
بے وفاؤں سے وفا نہ مانگیئے ، ان سے درد کی دوا نہ مانگیئے

fareb khaa gaya agar ko'ii kisi ke pyaar kaa, hameshah dekhtaa raha woh khaab wasl-e-yaar kaa
nah pyaar usko mil sakaa, nah yaar usko mil sakaa, jo mil saka to sirf intizaar usko mil saka
wasl-e-yaar ki du'aa nah maaNgiye
be-wafaa'oN se wafaa nah maangiye, in se dard ki dawaa nah maaNgiye

Question:
How could تو be translated into Persian and English?
  • Translation of at least one example above (preferably the last one, since it contains examples of many recently covered concepts) into both languages would (hopefully) be helpful for the Persian speaker learning Urdu.
    • The information above was included so that hopefully this wouldn't be considered an inappropriate thread (just asking for translations), it wouldn't be deleted, and the reason for requesting Persian translations would be evident!
 
  • Qureshpor

    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    I perceive the first three examples as same or similar in meaning as far as "to" is concerned. The last example is similar to if/then but in this example it is "what/then".

    jo mil sakaa to sirf intizaar us ko mil sakaa

    What he did obtain then ​for him it was only the waiting/expectation.

    Here is an example from Persian which your friend would be able to relate to.

    xudat kih mard-haa raa mii-shinaasii!

    tuu xud to mardoN ko jaantii hai!
     

    Alfaaz

    Senior Member
    English
    Thanks for the detailed answer Qureshpor SaaHib.
    Qureshpor said:
    I perceive the first three examples as same or similar in meaning as far as "to" is concerned.
    Could you translate one of the first three examples into English?
    Qureshpor said:
    Here is an example from Persian which your friend would be able to relate to.

    xudat kih mard-haa raa mii-shinaasii!

    tuu xud to mardoN ko jaantii hai!
    Didn't think about this earlier, but this seems similar to تو کہ ناواقفِ آدابِ غلامی ہے ابھی or ہم کہ ٹھہرے اجنبی اتنی مداراتوں کے بعد .
     

    marrish

    Senior Member
    اُردو Urdu
    تم ضدّ تو کر رہے ہو ، ہم کیا تمہیں سنائیں
    tuu zidd to kar rahe ho, ham kyaa tumheN sunaa'eN
    Emphasis on the verb ''zidd karnaa'' in present continuous tense:
    You are just being wilful, what['s the use that] I should tell to/sing for you anything.

    پیار کرنا تو اک عبادت ہے ، پیار کرنا کوئی گناہ نہیں
    pyaar karnaa to ik 3ibaadat hai, pyaar karnaa ko'ii gunaah nahiiN
    Loving is in point of fact an act of worship, loving is no sin.

    مجھے تم نظر سے گرا تو رہے ہو ، مجھے تم کبھی بھی بھلا نہ سکو گے
    mujhe tum nazar se giraa to rahe ho, mujhe tum kabhii bhii bhulaa nah sako ge
    [Although]
    you are showing indifference towards me*, [it's] me whom you won't be ever able to forget.

    *more or less literally: causing me fall from grace. I am sure everyone knows who would be better placed to translate these verses!

    نہ یار اس کو مل سکا ، نہ پیار اس کو مل سکا ، جو مل سکا تو صرف انتظار اس کو مل سکا
    nah yaar us ko mil sakaa, nah pyaar us ko mil saka, jo mil sakaa to sirf intizaar us ko mil sakaa
    Correlative function: jo->to
    He couldn't find a friend nor could he attain love, what could come his way, that was only looking out that he could attain.
    Another possible approach: and if he could find anything [at all] it was only looking out he was able to find.

    Edit: Here is an attempt at translating the last verse into Persian. If any Persian speaking friend happens to notice it please do correct and rephrase it as I am most certain that it is full of mistakes as it is just for exercising.

    دستش یارے نمی توانست افتاد، نہ عشق را بیابد، آنکہ دیگر توانست در راھش یابد صرف، فقط چشم براھی بود کہ او توانست یابد
    dast-esh yaar-ii nemii tavaanest oftaad, nah 3eshq raa beyaabad; aankeh diigar tavaanest raah-esh yaabad serf/faqat chashm ba-raahii buud keh uu tavaanest yaabad.

    diigar is used here with the intention of adding emphasis in the way of comparison.
     
    Last edited:

    Qureshpor

    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    tum zid to kar rahe ho, ham kyaa tumheN sunaa'eN
    naGhme jo kho ga'e haiN, un ko kahaaN se laa'eN


    Oh I know you are insisting, but what can I recite for you?
    Those bygone melodies! Whence can I bring them to you?

    pyaar karnaa to ik 3ibaadat hai, pyaar karnaa ko'ii gunaah naheeN
    be-vafaa'ii ke hoN nishaaN jis par, manzil-i-3ishq kii vuh raah naheeN


    To love is nothing short of worship; so to have loved is not to have sinned!
    If upon it be marks of infidelity, that path is not where true love is destined

    mujhe tum nazar se giraa to rahe ho, mujhe tum kabhi bhi bhulaa nah sako ge
    nah jaane mujhe kyuuN yaqeeN ho chalaa hai, mere pyaar ko tum miTaa nah sako ge


    You have cast me from your favour, but you won’t be able to forget me, ever!
    I don’t know why I feel so sure, but you won’t be able to erase my love, ever!
     

    Qureshpor

    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    نہ یار اس کو مل سکا ، نہ پیار اس کو مل سکا
    جو مل سکا تو صرف انتظار اس کو مل سکا


    uu nah 3ishq yaaft-o-nah uu-raa yaar buud

    chiizii kih uu yaaft, aan faqat intizaar buud
     

    Qureshpor

    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    Getting back to "to", C.M. Naim gives the following explanation.

    x "to" implies, in the contextual understanding of the sentence, a certain focus on x, be it of "inclusive" or "exclusive" to any consideration of another word or phrase having the same grammatical nature and function as x. There is no exact English equivalent for "to"; it can only be diversely paraphrased from the point of view of the user, as in the examples below.

    احمد نے تو کتاب پڑھی تھی۔ Ahmad had read the book (I don't know if anyone else did it or not)

    احمد نے کتاب تو پڑھی تھی۔ ....(I don't know if he still remembers any of it)

    احمد نے کتاب پڑھی تو تھی۔ ....( I don't know if he read anything else)

    Alfaaz SaaHib, for your Persian friend, another example

    درے کھ نھ داری دربان چھ کنی؟

    کوئی دروازہ تو ہے نہیں چوکیدار کا کیا کرو گے؟
     

    Qureshpor

    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    [...]Edit: Here is an attempt at translating the last verse into Persian. If any Persian speaking friend happens to notice it please do correct and rephrase it as I am most certain that it is full of mistakes as it is just for exercising.

    دستش یارے نمی توانست افتاد، نہ عشق را بیابد، آنکہ دیگر توانست در راھش یابد صرف، فقط چشم براھی بود کہ او توانست یابد
    dast-esh yaar-ii nemii tavaanest oftaad, nah 3eshq raa beyaabad; aankeh diigar tavaanest raah-esh yaabad serf/faqat chashm ba-raahii buud keh uu tavaanest yaabad.

    diigar is used here with the intention of adding emphasis in the way of comparison.
    I shall send you a PM, marrish SaaHib. Otherwise we'll go off on a tangent!
     

    Qureshpor

    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    Thanks for the comprehensive answers!
    Here is bit more, to make it even more comprehensive....courtesy of aaqaa-ye-Aramp

    اینکه چیز تازه ای نیست

    یہ تو کوئی نئی چیز نہیں ہے۔
     

    Alfaaz

    Senior Member
    English
    Qureshpor said:
    Here is bit more, to make it even more comprehensive....courtesy of aaqaa-ye-Aramp

    اینکه چیز تازه ای نیست

    یہ تو کوئی نئی چیز نہیں ہے۔
    Thanks Qureshpor SaaHib and Aryamp SaaHib.
    marrish said:
    Have they proved to be helpful in any way?
    marrish SaaHib, as I had said in the PM that I would reply to this question as soon as the other person gives feedback, here is a paraphrase of the answer: yes, they have been helpful, but some things might not have been clear because of grammar. The person will consult forum members for those questions and make threads after getting a better grasp of Urdu grammar.
     

    marrish

    Senior Member
    اُردو Urdu
    That's alright, I and others will wait for the final assession of their efforts.
     
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